Organic Farming in Subtropics

Organic Farming in the
Tropics and Subtropics
Exemplary Description of 20 Crops
Mango
© Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001
These cultivation guidelines have been published by Naturland e.V. with the kind support of the
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit mbH (GTZ, German Agency for Technical
Cooperation) financed by the Bundesministerium für Wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit (BMZ,
Federal Ministry for Development Cooperation). The cultivation recommendations at hand for 20
crops of the tropics and subtropics being of significant importance for the world economy were
written by various authors.
Naturland would like mention the following authors and thank them for their contributions:
Franz Augstburger, Jörn Berger, Udo Censkowsky,
Petra Heid, Joachim Milz, Christine Streit.
The cultivation guidelines are available in English, Spanish and German for the following crops:
banana, brazil nut, cashew nut, cocoa, coconut, coffee,
cotton, hibiscus, macadamia, mango, papaya, peanut,
pepper, pineapple, sugar cane, sesame, tea, vanilla.
The cultivation guidelines for Bananas, Mangoes, Pineapples and Pepper were revised in 2001 for
the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) by Udo Censkowsky and
Friederike Höngen.
In 2002 two more guidelines, for rice and date palms, were published in English.
All the authors emphasize, that the cultivation recommendations at hand can just provide general
information. They do not substitute technical assistance to the farmers with regard to the location.
All indications, data and results of this cultivation guidelines have been compiled and crosschecked
most carefully by the authors. Yet mistakes with regard to the contents cannot be
precluded. The indicated legal regulations are based on the state of the year 1999 and are subject
to alterations in future. Consequently all information has to be given in exclusion of any obligation
or guarantee by Naturland e.V. or the authors. Both Naturland e.V. and authors therefore do not
accept any responsibility or liability.
Furthermore the authors kindly call upon for critical remarks, additions and other important
information to be forwarded to the address below. The cultivation guidelines will be updated
regularly by Naturland e.V.
Naturland e.V.
Kleinhaderner Weg 1
82166 Gräfelfing
Germany
phone: +49 – (0)89 – 898082-0
fax: +49 – (0)89 – 898082-90
e-mail: naturland@naturland.de
website: www.naturland.de
We pass our gratitude to Peter Brul of Agro Eco for his helpful comments on the manuscript. Our
best thanks are also devoted to all supporters of this publication, in particular Mrs Sybille
Groschupf who cleaned up the text from errors in strenuous detail work and did the attractive
layout.
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001
Index
1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.1. Botany …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.2. Varieties and countries of origin……………………………………………………….. 1
1.3. Uses and contents……………………………………………………………………………. 2
2. Aspects of plant cultivation………………………………………………………………. 3
2.1. Site requirements …………………………………………………………………………….. 3
2.2. Seeds and seedlings………………………………………………………………………… 3
2.2.1. Propagation ………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
2.2.2. Flower formation………………………………………………………………………………… 4
2.3. Planting methods …………………………………………………………………………….. 4
2.4. Diversification strategies………………………………………………………………….. 5
2.5. Nutrients and organic fertilisation management………………………………… 5
2.5.1. Nutrient requirements…………………………………………………………………………. 5
2.6. Biological methods of plant protection……………………………………………… 6
2.6.1. Diseases…………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
2.6.2. Pests ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
2.7. Crop cultivation and maintenance…………………………………………………….. 8
2.7.1. Young plants …………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
2.7.2. Crop monitoring…………………………………………………………………………………. 9
2.8. Harvesting and post-harvest treatment……………………………………………. 10
2.8.1. Harvesting ………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
2.8.2. Post harvest treatment ……………………………………………………………………… 10
3. Product Specifications and Quality Standards ………………………………… 10
3.1. Fresh mangoes………………………………………………………………………………. 10
3.1.1. Preparation……………………………………………………………………………………… 10
3.1.2. Packaging and storage……………………………………………………………………… 11
3.2. Dried mangoes……………………………………………………………………………….. 11
3.2.1. Processing………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
3.2.2. Quality requirements ………………………………………………………………………… 12
3.2.3. Packaging and storage……………………………………………………………………… 14
3.3. Mango marmalades………………………………………………………………………… 16
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001
3.3.1. Processing………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
3.3.2. Quality requirements ………………………………………………………………………… 18
3.3.3. Packaging and storage……………………………………………………………………… 19
3.4. Canned mangoes……………………………………………………………………………. 20
3.4.1. Processing………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
3.4.2. Quality requirements ………………………………………………………………………… 23
3.4.3. Packaging and storage……………………………………………………………………… 23
3.5. Mango pulp ……………………………………………………………………………………. 25
3.5.1. Processing………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
3.5.2. Quality requirements ………………………………………………………………………… 27
3.5.3. Packaging and storage……………………………………………………………………… 28
Annex: Quality Requirements……………………………………………………………………. 31
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 1
Organic Cultivation of Mangoes
1. Introduction
The mango tree originates from the Indian/Burmese monsoon region. The Mango
fruit (Mangifera indica L.) is the most important tropical fruit after the banana, yet
due to its sensitivity to bruising, in terms of numbers, it plays only a small role in
world trade (fresh mango). Mango has been disseminated for a long time, and is
cultivated in all warm countries down to the sub-tropics.
1.1. Botany
Mango belongs to the family of Anacardiaceous, a rapidly growing, evergreen tree
with a dense, outspread coronet. Its leaves grow alternately, and red-violet or
bronze-coloured in the early stages, then of a dark-green, leathery consistency. The
blossoms are generally hermaphrodite, and pollination occurs through flies and
other insects. Certain types of mango need to be manually pollinated. Mango
blossom up to 3 times a year, depending on climate and fertilisation conditions. If
the first blossom is not pollinated, a new blossom is induced.
Ripe fruits are between yellow, orange-yellow, red or red-green in colour, and
contain a flat stone, which is very difficult to separate from the thick fibres of the
pulp.
Mango trees can reach a height of 40 m. In a diversified agro-forestry or mixed
cultivation system, it belongs to the uppermost trees, alongside, or under which,
according to site conditions (soil, rainfall, humidity etc.), a variety of cultures can be
planted.
1.2. Varieties and countries of origin
The varieties differ in taste, size, shape and texture. India has the largest variety.
But a variety of different trading types are also available in Florida. One typical
characteristic of mangoes is its alternation, which is also strongly dependant on
variety. Balanced nutritional and climatic conditions will have a positive effect on fruit
development. For this reason, strongly alternating varieties can offer a steady
harvest when the supply of nutrients is well-balanced.
In principle, it is possible to differentiate between two large groups of mango
according to their origin:
A group from Indo-china/Philippines, and one coming from India.
Latin American varieties are crossbreeds of both. Using the varieties “Mulgoba” and
“Cambodiana” as an example, all of the different variety characteristics can be
displayed:
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Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 2
Characteristic Mulgoba Cambodiana
Country of origin India Indo-China/Philippines
Shape variable, mostly round,
elongated
Somewhat flat, elongated
Colour Bright red, purplish or bright
yellow
Yellow-green when ripe, seldom
purple
Fibre content Variable, with/without fibre
possible
No fibres
Taste Sweet, little sour, very aromatic Sweet, little sour, very aromatic
Seeds One embryo (compare 2.2.) several Embryos (compare 2.2.)
Susceptibility to
anthracnose
very Yes to not very
Certified organic mangoes are mostly exported to Europe from the following
countries: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Columbia (dried), Costa Rica, Dominican Republic
(pulp), Ghana, Guinea, India (fresh, dried and pulp), Madagascar, Senegal (fresh
and dried), South Africa, Togo, Uganda, USA, Venezuela (pulp).
1.3. Uses and contents
Mango has many uses. Young fruits whose tegument have not yet hardened, are
used in Asiatic countries as a vegetable, fresh or pickled. In Latin American
countries, slightly unripe pulp is eaten with some salt.
Ripened fruits are eaten fresh everywhere, and to make juice or marmalade, and
also dried and made into candy (compare No. 3). All remnants from the fruits can be
used as animal feed (e.g. for pigs). The young leaves for example are very good as
cattle feed, because they have a protein content of 8-9% and a high Ca content as
well. The bark and leaves of mango trees can also be used as a dye for cloth. The
wood of the trees is highly suitable for making charcoal.
Contents and amounts in 100 g fresh pulp1:
Contents Amount
Water 87 g
Edible carbohydrates 11 g
Raw fat 0,7 g
Raw fibres 0,7 g
Vitamin A 1000-3000 I.E.
Vitamin C 30 mg
Energy in kJ 210 kJ
Reduction before eating (%) 34%
1 REHM, S. und ESPIG, G.: (1996) Die Kulturpflanzen der Tropen und Subtropen, Ulmer Verlag.
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 3
2. Aspects of plant cultivation
2.1. Site requirements
The mango grows best in tropical summer rain regions, at temperatures between
24°C and 28°C. Despite being fully foliated, the trees are remarkably resistant
against drying out. A dry period or cooler temperatures enliven the blossoming and
the production of mangoes. A period of respite in the growth of vegetation is
necessary to enable blossoming. The trees will therefore not produce any fruits in
those moist tropical regions that lack a definite seasonal rainfall or temperature
fluctuations.
Mango trees can also thrive in the sub-tropics (Egypt, Israel). Some varieties can
even withstand a light frost. Young seedlings must nevertheless be protected from
damage through frost (e.g. with straw or palm leaves).
Mangoes have few soil requirements. A healthy, high yielding plantation is
nevertheless only possible on fertile, deep and well-drained ground.
2.2. Seeds and seedlings
There are many different varieties of mangoes. Different varieties are preferred in
different regions (differences in the taste, texture and colour of the pulp etc.). The
most popular varieties have mono-embryonic seeds, and can therefore only be
pollinated vegetative. This has the advantage of producing a uniform product, while
seedlings (fruit with poly-embryonic seeds) can even segregate a parent plant very
strongly, producing very heterogeneous fruit.
Seedlings are used on mango plantations as rootstocks, to which the scions are
either grafted (diagonal cuts of the same size in both scion and rootstock are then
bound together) or budded (the scions are cut diagonally, while the bark of the
rootstock is cut and then pulled out to form a pocket. The scion is then pushed
inside the bark and tied up again) in tree nurseries. This work requires much
experience, and is therefore usually carried out by state propagation facilities. It is
only worth setting up your own tree nursery when a large scale mango plantation is
planned, and should then also only be carried out with the co-operation of an
advisory centre.
2.2.1. Propagation
Propagation is usually carried out in the following way:
Mango seeds are selected from the fruits of healthy, well-grown parent trees. In tree
nurseries, polyethylene bags (PE bags) are used. The PE bags need to have a
diameter of around 15 cm , and be about 30-40 cm high. The best earth to use is
50% well rotted compost and 50% top soil (humus-rich earth which has best yet not
been agriculturally cultivated). The best place to cultivate seedlings is in halfshadow
(e.g. a shadow canopy, palm leaves). When they have reached a height of
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
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around 50 cm and 8-10 mm diameter, the seedlings are then grafted or budded with
the chosen scion.
In selecting parent trees for scions, choose those which have well-developed
coronets and are the of right variety, and which have plentiful blossoms and fruit
over the years. You should therefore have been able to observe the trees over a
number of years, or know someone else who has. To bud, choose scions from
young woody twigs, that are somewhat thinner than the seedling rootstocks in the
tree nurseries. Remove the leaves from the twig one week before cutting away the
scion, which is cut to a length of 10 cm.
After budding, the seedlings remain a further 4 weeks in the nursery before being
planted out into the fields. The hole should be at least 40 x 40 cm big and 50 cm
deep, according to local conditions. Mix in 5 shovels of compost with the excavated
earth. Part of this is then stamped into the hole in order to make contact with the
earth. Then the seedling is planted with the rest of the soil, and again, pressed firmly
down. In order to save on irrigation, it is best to plant out at the beginning of the
rainy season, which means that the plant will be encouraged to grow during the dry
period.
2.2.2. Flower formation
Young seedlings blossom in the first year. They should not be allowed to carry fruit
though, as this would inhibit the growth of the tree. To encourage growth, the
blossoms are therefore plucked away until the 4th year.
2.3. Planting methods
The method chosen for planting is dependent upon the way they are being
cultivated and the site conditions. On a mango plantation where mangoes are the
main fruit sort, the following distances between plants must be upheld:
¨ On fertile ground with sufficient rainfall 10 x 10 m
¨ at semi-arid sites up to 15 x 15 m
Because mango trees grow rather slowly, it can take a relatively long time (up to 15
years) until the trees have occupied the room allotted to them. During this
development phase, there exist several possibilities to use the space available in a
balanced way:
1. When the soil quality and rainfall are sufficient, plants that quickly produce fruit
can be planted between the rows of mango trees, e.g. Papaya, Banana or
pineapple..
2. Making use of the surfaces for sowing of green manure plants (compare 2.4.).
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 5
2.4. Diversification strategies
Quite often, mangoes are planted in the mixed crop systems of the house gardens
in small farmholdings, or on extensively cultivated meadows and marginal ground,
where relatively acceptable harvests can be achieved.
On organic farms, mango should also be integrated into a mixed crop systems. On
the one hand, this will reduce the risk of pests through a large population of useful
insects, and on the other, the risk to the harvest engendered by the natural
alternation of mango can also be lessened.
Annual plants such as maize, hibiscus, beans, etc. can be planted during the early
growth period, according to site conditions. If the soil and climatic conditions allow,
more demanding crops such as papaya (a culture with a 3-5 year vegetation period),
bananas (20 years and longer) as well as avocado, mangosteen (Rheedia ssp.,
Achachairú), corossol (Anona muricata), coconut, lemons, nutmeg and many more
besides can also be planted along with mango.
At sites with poor or dry soil, it is possible to cultivate a mixed-crop system with such
low-demand crops as pineapple, guava, cashew, figs or other annona varieties.
Pasture land can slowly be transformed into better cultivating land by planting
mangoes and guavas, if the grazing is controlled or cut as feed.
The following criteria should be heeded when choosing plants to include in a
cultivation system with mango:
¨ Intercropping plants as well as green cover crops cannot be watered for a 2
month phase during the dry period, as otherwise the mangoes will only form
an insufficient amount of blossoms.
¨ The bottom crops should not contain a high percentage of legumes, because
the accumulation of nitrogen would otherwise inhibit the growth of the Mango
tree, which then limits the production of fruit.
If the spaces between the fruit trees is to be used as crop acreage, it makes sense
to establish a fruit rotation system. A phase with fruit, beans, vegetables, other fruits
(e.g. pineapple) and animal feed is possible here. If the shade allows it, bell
peppers, tomatoes and egg plants etc are also a possibility.
2.5. Nutrients and organic fertilisation management
2.5.1. Nutrient requirements
Mangoes require few nutrients. Nevertheless, it is advisable to supply a mango
plantation with compost and green manure during the growth period. The fertiliser
should be applied after the tree has blossomed, so that it has enough nutrients to
produce fruit. A high level of production can be achieved in this way by supplying
compost in the mixed system of domestic garden.
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 6
If the mangoes are on a plantation with other crops, then care must be taken not to
supply fertiliser to the other crops during the time that the flower buds appear on the
mangoes (e.g. that bottom crops are not irrigated during the first 2 months of the dry
season), This would otherwise spoil the production of buds.
Special care should be taken when beans are used as a bottom crops that nitrogen
is not made too readily available, because the vegetative growth of the fruit trees
would then dominate.
Under good conditions, the following yields can be achieved (without taking
alternation into account):
Variety (examples) Yield per ha
Keitt, Tommy Atkins 30 tons
Kent, Palmer, Irwin 25 tons
Haden 10 tons
Average harvests over several years under less than optimum conditions usually
yield between 5 and 10 tons per ha and year. The yields per tree can vary, and can
deliver between 100 and 500 kg, according to conditions. The yields in household
garden systems can be significantly more in comparison to mango plantations.
2.6. Biological methods of plant protection
2.6.1. Diseases
The most usual diseases with mango trees are fungus and bacterial diseases.
The first important preventative measure is make sure that the propagation
segments are healthy. The scions that were raised in tree nurseries and whose
origins are maybe unclear, should be carefully examined. They shall not have been
treated with any synthetic or chemical agents.
Anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is the most
wide-spread disease among mangoes. The varieties vary in susceptibility.
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causes anthracnose on fruits, and drop of flowers on
young branches. Anthracnose always appears as a result of scurvy (Elsinoe
mangiferae). Fruits stricken with anthracnose can be plunged into a hot water bath
(3-5 min./55°C), in order to kill off the fungus. Preventative measures are
nevertheless preferable, to preclude injuries and an infection with scurvy, because
anthracnose can usually only take a hold on damaged fruits that are also affected by
scurvy. A case of scurvy can usually be prevented by removing all dead plant
material (branches, leaves and fruit). In exceptional cases, the fungus can be
brought under control again with 1% Bordeaux Mixture2.
2 According to the European Regulation for Organic Agriculture (EEC) 2092/91 the use of copper
preparations for plant protection (e.g. Bordeaux Mixture) is allowed for a transitional period which will
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 7
While anthracnose generally attacks ripe fruits (only seldom the blossoms), a
bacterial infection from Erwinia sp. can also affect young fruit. The symptoms are
very similar to the flecks caused to the leaves and fruit by anthracnose. The bacteria
usually survive in the ground – a heavy rainfall will then splash the spores against
the lower leaves and fruits. Covering the ground can therefore help to protect
against this. Active life in the soil will also help to prevent an explosive growth of
bacteria. Sites where it can rain inside the blossoms can also be a problem.
Young fruit and also blossoms can be damaged by powdery mildew (Oïdium
mangiferae). This fungus grows during warm and moist weather, during blossoming
and when the fruit appears. A case of powdery mildew can dramatically affect the
harvest. An open, well-ventilated population and regular cutting back of the coronets
can best help to prevent mildew. In acute cases, mildew can also be brought under
control with sulphur. When carrying this out, there should be no wind blowing, and
the leaves should still be moist with dew.
The leaf spot disease (Cercospora mangiferae) on mangoes is visible as dented
spots on leaves and fruit. The same applies for this fungus, an open and quickdrying
population is the best protection against infection.
Fruit infected with Cercospora can no longer be sold, furthermore, both the leaf spot
disease and scurvy prepare the way for a case of anthracnose. In exceptional
cases, the leaf spot disease can be brought under control again with 1% Bordeaux
Mixture3.
2.6.2. Pests
The worst pests for mangoes are cotton scales, mealy bugs, cicadas and black flies
(create honey dew). These are all sucking insects that live on the leaves, young
buds and shoots. They can cause a lot of damage. Yet they all have natural
enemies, such as e.g. ladybird larvae, wasps, spiders and other types, such as
parasitic fungi e.g. with cicadas and black flies.
An ecological plantation with a variety of crops, enough plots under different crops
e.g. forest and a sufficient amount of vegetation to cover the soil and enrich the
variety of species (e.g. mulching only right after the plants have flowered), will
provide enough enemies to combat the pests that measures against them are
usually unnecessary. Cicadas are averse to open, well ventilated soil, also drain the
soil well to avoid wet patches.
end at the 31st of March 2002. However, any use of copper preparations until 2002 has to be approved
by the certification body. In case copper preparations have to be applied it is recommended to use
preparations which contain less copper and therefore to reduce the accumulation of copper in soils
(e.g. tribasic copper sulphate, copper hydroxide).
3 Compare footnote No. 2
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 8
In emergencies, the following methods should help:
¨ Scale insects can be regulated with a ‘winter-spraying’, i.e. with paraffin oil
(white oil) shortly before the larvae hatch from their eggs. The paraffin oil is
sprayed on as a 3 % water emulsion.
¨ Plant spraying mixtures made of stinging nettles or Neem4 can be against
cicadas. The worst damage occurs during blossoming, so the plantation
should be checked regularly around this time in order to make up the brew
and spray it early enough
¨ Mealy bugs lay their eggs on the ground next to the trunk. By wrapping
smooth plastic bands around the trunk, the larvae can be prevented from
infesting too large an area. Should they infest the tree, a solution of 1% soft
soap (potassium soap) with 1 % pure alcohol is quite effective.
¨ Black fly can be kept under control by useful insects. A variety of prospatella
species can be of use here. This requires a good functioning control system,
because the useful larvae need to be made available for release in time.
Where this is not possible, spraying white oil shortly before the pests hatch,
as such as with scale insects can be sufficient.
2.7. Crop cultivation and maintenance
2.7.1. Young plants
In a newly set up plantation or when young mango plants are being planted in an
existing plantation, the young trees can be planted together with the other crops.
The other crops which have only a short life-cycle will not disrupt the mango’s
growth (as long as they are harvested afterwards). This also applies to crops with
medium-long vegetation cycles, e.g. bananas or papaya. As soon as these enter
their ripening phase and end their life-cycle (papaya after 4-5 years) they need to be
removed. The resulting vegetative material is then hacked up and spread across the
soil. This also applies with secondary forest systems that nevertheless need to be
regularly cut back. As soon as the mango trees enter into their harvesting phase,
the trees that belong to the species comprising the secondary forest system should
be cut back far enough so that the mango trees’ tips are at least on the same level
as they are and are not covered by them. The area around the trunks must be kept
covered with mulching material. This can either be gained from the mown natural
vegetation, the cuttings which become available and from palm leaves. The material
should be spread carefully so that it does not touch the trunk, and thus give rise to
fungus infections.
4 According to the European Regulation for Organic Agriculture (EEC) 2092/91 the application of Neem
preparations is restricted and only allowed for the production of seed and seedlings. This regulation is
discussed controversial. An up-date information is available from your certification body.
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 9
The soil between the trees can be used as crop acreage. Should this be impossible
due to site conditions (e.g. too little rainfall), the naturally growing vegetation should
left to grow and then cut down before it blossoms, in order to encourage the
establishment of useful insects and to produce bio-mass. These are then mown
down to provide a mulching layer that protects the soil, to aid the tilts of the soil and
to positively influence the water-retaining capacity of the soil.
Mango trees react positively to being cut . It can become necessary in mixed
cultivation systems to limit the height of growth and the crown diameter by pruning.
Pruning stimulates the production of new shoots and thus provides more bio-mass.
Using this method regularly, sites with only very little organic material can help to
raise the fertility of the soil.
2.7.2. Crop monitoring
In addition to measures such as pruning the trees, applying fertiliser, caring for the
bottom crops, occasional crop protective measures and harvesting, it is also
necessary to regularly check on the development of the fruits. If the crown is well
formed during the early stages of the trees, and allows enough light to filter through
and air to circulate, then only old, dead wood needs to be removed. The
development of blossoms and fruit must be checked regularly. The alternating
phases of mango yields also needs to be taken into account. In addition to this
alternation, poor blossoms and fruit development can have several causes. In the
case of young trees, too much nitrogen (either through fertilisers or from a bottom
culture with a high legume content) can prevent blossoming, as can watering the
bottom crops during the blossoming period. In addition, an over-ageing of the crown
in older trees can also lead to a lack of fruiting lateral. This can be alleviated with
rejuvenation pruning.
The possible appearance of diseases and pests also needs to be monitored during
the fruit development stage, so that the necessary measures can be taken (compare
2.6.). This is especially important when a heavy infestation of scales or black fly
appears, as these need to be sprayed with white oil at exactly the time before the
larvae hatch.
As the harvesting period nears, this needs to be regularly checked to predict the
correct time (comp. 2.8.). Fruit harvested too early or too late will suffer massive
disadvantages on the market, as fruit harvested too early will not keep for very long.
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
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2.8. Harvesting and post-harvest treatment
2.8.1. Harvesting
A mango plantation will supply its first commercially marketable amount of fruit
around. 4-5 years after being planted.
At the end of the fruit’s development period, the peel will turn leathery. The fruit is
ripe for harvesting when the skin has turned from green to red or yellow. Some
farmers wait with the harvesting until the first fruits have fallen to the ground of their
own accord. Yet because the fruits do not all ripen at the same time, the colour
change must nevertheless be regularly checked.
The fruits are harvested by breaking them off or with a pair of scissors. A pair of
steps or a cherry-picker will be needed for tall trees. With medium tall trees (up to
ca. 4 m), the fruits can be picked individually with the help of a harvesting rod. Not
too many fruits should be placed into one sack to avoid bruising them. Such fruits
will not keep for long, and cannot be sold as fresh. Any damaged fruits should be
separated during harvesting to prevent the spread of fungus infections.
2.8.2. Post harvest treatmentUsually, a post harvest handling is not required. For
safety reasons, treatment with warm water is recommended (see below), and is
absolutely necessary in cases of anthracnose infection.
The fruits are packed into sturdy cases. They are sorted visually, because machine
sorting is expensive and complicated. For export to Europe, sizes from 270 g to
335 g. are preferable.
The fruits are generally packed in untreated wood wool, free from harmful
substances, to prevent them lying too close to one another.
The cases must also be well aerated. Cartons which hold 5 kg of fruit have become
standard for export to Europe, as this size is also easily managed in the retail
business (compare No. 3).
3. Product Specifications and Quality Standards
3.1. Fresh mangoes
3.1.1. Preparation
With hundreds of varieties, mangoes are differentiated by weight (250 g to 2 kg),
shape (oval, pear or kidney-shaped), colour of the skin (green, yellow, orangeyellow,
orange-red) and taste (more or less aromatically sweet). The flesh is yellow
to yellow-orange, juicy and has a varying fibre content according to variety, whereby
fruits with a high fibre content are generally not sold as fresh fruit, but are processed
during which the fibres need to be removed. Mangoes have many different uses.
Ripe fruits can be eaten fresh, or processed into juice, pulp, concentrate, candied
fruits, jams, chutneys, canned fruits or dried.
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 11
If the mangoes are to be sold as fresh fruits, they must be treated with a warm water
bath to remove any dirt or funguses from the peel. It is recommended to place them
in a 55°C water bath for 5 minutes and then let them cool down slowly. Afterwards,
they are dried, sorted, classified, packed and stored before shipment.
¨ The EU quality standards are shown in the Annex
3.1.2. Packaging and storage
Packaging
The regulations concerning carton labelling were dealt with in section VI of the
‘UN/ECE standard FFV – 45 for mangoes’.
Storage
¨ Not fully ripened mangoes that are to be shipped by sea, should be stored at a
relative humidity of 90% and not under 12°C.
¨ Fully ripened mangoes that are to be shipped by sea, should be stored at a
relative humidity of 90% and at a temperature of 10°C.
3.2. Dried mangoes
3.2.1. Processing
Drying is the oldest method of making food storable for longer periods. It is based
on the fact that micro-organisms tend to cease growing below a certain level of
water content. During drying, it is important to extract the water from the fruit as
carefully as possible. The most important features are a good circulation of air and
not too high temperatures
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 12
The preparation stages from fresh to dried fruit are outlined and then described
more fully below:
Fruit

sorting

washing

peeling

pulping

drying

Sorting
and packaging

Labelling
and storing
Sorting
After harvesting, the fruits are sorted as only fresh, unripe and not fermented fruits
can be used for drying.
Washing and peeling
Mangoes must be washed very carefully, in order not to damage them. Afterwards,
inedible parts such as leaves, seeds, pips, heartwood and skins are removed.
Pulping and drying the fruits
The fruits are now cut into same-sized pieces, and laid out to dry in the air and sun
in thin layers on racks, in solar dryers (drying tunnels) or drying ovens (artificial
drying at 70°C).
Sorting and packaging
Before they are packed, the fruits are inspected and sorted again, to rid them of
discoloured, skin remnants and seeds etc..
Labelling and storage
The packaged fruits can now be labelled and stored prior to being shipped.
During and after drying, the dried fruits are not permitted to be treated with methyl
bromide, ethylene oxide, sulphur oxides or with ionising radiation.
3.2.2. Quality requirements
The following is a list of quality characteristics with minimum and maximum values
for dried fruits, that are usually required officially or by importers. Different minimum
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 13
and maximum values can be agreed between importers and exporters, providing
these do not clash with official regulations.
Quality characteristics Minimum and maximum values
Taste and smell Variety-specific, aromatic, fresh, not
mouldy
cleanliness Free from foreign particles, such as
insects, sand, small stones etc.
Water content max. 18 %
Aw-value 0.55 to 0.65 (at 20 °C)
Residues
Pesticides Not measurable
Sulphur oxide Not measurable
Bromide and ethylene oxide Not measurable
Micro-organisms
Total number of parts max. 10,000/g
Yeasts max. 10/g
Mould fungus max. 10/g
Staphylococcus aureus max. 10/g
Coliforms max. 1/g
Escherichia coli Not measurable in 0.01 g
Enterococci Not measurable in 1 g
Salmonella Not measurable in 20 g
Mycotoxins
Staphylococcus enterotoxin Not measurable
Aflatoxin B1 max. 2 Sg/kg
Total aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 max. 4 Sg/kg
Patulin max. 50 Sg/kg
Heavy metals
lead (Pb) max. 1.25 mg/kg
Cadmium (Cd) max. 0.125 mg/kg
Mercury (Hg) max. 0.10 mg/kg
In order that the quality requirements are upheld, and no contamination of the fruits
occurs, preparation should take place under clean, hygienic and ideal conditions.
The following aspects should be adhered to:
¨ Equipment (tubs, knives etc.), as well as working and drying surfaces (racks,
mats etc.) and preparing and storage rooms, should be cleaned regularly.
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 14
¨ Personnel should be healthy, and have the possibility to wash themselves, or at
least their hands (washrooms, toilets) and wear clean, washable garments.
¨ Water used for cleansing purposes must be free from faeces and other
contaminants.
¨ Animals or animal faeces must not come into contact with the fruits. If the fruits
are to be dried in the open, then fences must be erected to guard the racks
against birds and nearby animals.
3.2.3. Packaging and storage
Packaging types and material
In order to be exported to Europe, the dried fruits can be packed in consumer packs,
or wholesaler packs (bulk) in bags made of saleable, foils, impermeable to steam
(e.g. polyethylene or polypropylene). Before sealing, a gas (e.g. nitrogen) may be
added (nitrogen flushing).
Details given on packaging
If the dried fruits are packed directly for consumers, then the following details must
be included on the outside of the packets:
¨ Product name (‘trade name’)
The name of the product, e.g.: Mango slices organically grown5
¨ Manufacturer
Name and address of the manufacturer, importer, exporter or trader within the
country of origin, and which country.
¨ List of contents
A list of ingredients and additions, beginning with the heaviest proportion of total
weight at the time of packaging.
¨ Weight
Details of the total packed weight in grams
The numbers describing the weight of the contents must be of the following sizes
Weight of contents Letter size
Less than 50 g 2 mm
More than 50 g to 200 g 3 mm
More than 200 g to 1000 g 4 mm
5 When products from orgabnic farms are being declared as such, it is necessary to adhere to the
requisite government regulations of the importing country. Information concerning this is available from
the appropriate certification body. The regulation (EEC) 2092/91 are applicable to organic products
being imported into Europe.
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 15
¨ Best before date
The ‘Best before …’ details must include day, month and year; e.g.. best before
30.11.2001
¨ Batch number
Function of the product packaging
The product packaging should fulfil the following functions:
¨ Protect it from loss of aroma and against undesirable smells and tastes from its
surroundings (aroma protection).
¨ Offer sufficient conservation properties, especially against loss or gain of
moisture.
¨ Protect the contents against damaging.
¨ Provide a surface area for advertising and product information.
Transport packaging
Some form of transport packaging is required in order to ship the bulk or singly
packed fruits. In choosing a type of packaging, the following should be heeded:
¨ Transport packaging made, for example, out of cardboard, should be strong
enough to protect the contents against being damaged by outside pressure.
¨ The packaging should be dimensioned to allow the contents to be held firmly,
but not too tightly in place.
¨ The dimensions should be compatible with standard pallet and container
dimensions.
Information printed on transport packaging
The transport packaging should display details of the following:
¨ Name and address of the manufacturer/packer and country of origin
¨ Description of the product and its quality class
¨ Year harvested
¨ Net weight, number
¨ Batch number
¨ Destination, with the trader’s/importer’s address
¨ Visible indication of the organic origin of the product6
Storage
The dried fruits should be stored in dark areas at low temperatures and relative
humidity.
Under optimum conditions, dried fruits can be stored for up to 1 year.
6 Organic products must be protected from contamination by non-compliant substances at each stage
in the process, i.e. processing, packaging, shipping. Therefore, products originating from a certified
organic farm must be recognisably declared as such.
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 16
If the organic product is being stored in a single warehouse together with
conventionally grown mango slices mixing of the different qualities must be avoided.
This is best achieved using the following methods:
¨ Training and informing of warehouse personnel
¨ Explicit signs in the warehouse (silos, pallets, tanks etc.)
¨ Colour differentiation (e.g. green for the organic product)
¨ Incoming/dispatched goods separately documented (warehouse logbook)
It is prohibited to carry out chemical storage measures (e.g. gassing with methyl
bromide) in mixed storage spaces. Wherever possible, storing both organic and
conventional products together in the same warehouse should be avoided.
3.3. Mango marmalades
3.3.1. Processing
Jams are basically preparations made of fruit (jams) and various sugars that are
made conservable mainly by heat treatment (boil down). The half-set yet spreadable
consistency of these products is achieved by releasing the pectin found in the fruit
pulp during the boiling process, and using this together with further pectin added to
form a jelly-like mass.
The preparation stages from fresh fruit to jam are outlined and then described more
fully below:
Fruit

sorting

washing

Peeling and sorting

pulping

addition of sugar

heating and boiling down

possible addition of pectin, citric
acid and organic spices, then
renewed heating

filling into jars

II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 17
vacuum sealing

Pasteurising

cooling

labelling and storing
Sorting
After harvesting, the fruits are sorted, because only those that are fresh, ripe and
not rotten can be used to make jams. Jams can also be made from previously
prepared, frozen fruits and pulp.
Washing
The fruit should be washed very carefully as it can easily be damaged.
Peeling and sorting
This follows the procedure of removing leaves, wooden pieces, pips or seeds and
peel. Peeling is often done manually, or with knives, yet sometimes the skin is
loosened with steam and then subsequently rubbed away mechanically. Finally, the
fruits are sorted again to remove any blackened pieces, bits of peeling seeds etc.
Pulping and adding sugar
The peeled fruits are then pulped, and sugar added. They might also be mixed with
water or fruit juice. To make jam, at least 350 g fruit per 1000 g finished product
must be used; to make jam extra, at least 450 g fruit per 1000 g finished product
must be used. The sugar must be organically grown.
Description Fruit content during manufacture
Jam, extra 450 g fruit per 1000 g product
Jam 350 g fruit per 1000 g product
Heating and boiling
The mixture is now heated to 70-80°C and boiled down, while constantly being
stirred, at 65°C until shortly before it reaches the desired consistency.
Adding citric acid, pectin and spices (optional)
If necessary or desired, citric acid, pectin and spices (spices from certified organic
agriculture) can be added, and the mixture again briefly heated to 80°C.
Filling into jars, vacuum-sealing and Pasteurising
The liquid mass is now poured into jars, vacuum-sealed and pasteurised.
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 18
Cooling, labelling and storage
After the heating process, the jams are first cooled to 40°C, and then subsequently
down to storage temperature, labelled, and finally stored.
3.3.2. Quality requirements
In addition to the previously mentioned quality requirements, such as clearly defined
fruit content, the jams also have to conform to the following specifications. These
quality requirements, with their minimum and maximum values, are generally issued
by the authorities or importers. Yet agreements may be reached between individual
manufacturers and importers upon different values, providing they still conform to
official requirements.
Quality requirements Minimum and maximum values
Smell and taste Variety-specific, aromatic
Cleanliness Free of foreign substances such
as peel, stalks etc.
Contents of jam extra Min. 450 g per 1000 g product
Contents of jam min. 350 g per 1000 g product
Soluble dry matter in percent
(measured refract metrically)
min. 60 %
Mycotoxins
Aflatoxin B1 max. 2 Sg/kg
Total aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 max. 4 Sg/kg
Patulin max. 50 Sg/kg
Residues
Pesticides Not measurable
Sulphur oxide Not measurable
Bromide Not measurable
Ethylene oxide Not measurable
In order to conform to the quality requirements, and to prevent the fruit becoming
contaminated, all preparations must be carried out under clean, hygienic and
acceptable conditions. The following aspects must be heeded:
¨ Equipment (tubs, knives etc.), as well as working surfaces (tables etc.) and
preparing and storage rooms, should be cleaned regularly.
¨ Personnel should be healthy, and have the possibility to wash themselves, or at
least their hands (washrooms, toilets) and wear clean, washable garments.
¨ Water used for cleansing purposes must be free from faeces and other
contaminants.
¨ Animals or animal faeces must not come into contact with the processed fruits.
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 19
3.3.3. Packaging and storage
Packaging types and material
In order to be exported to Europe, the jams are usually filled into consumer-size jars
with twist-off lids.
Details given on packaging
The label on the jar must display the following:
¨ Product name (‘Trade name’)
The name of the product, consisting of: Name of the fruit with or without the
description extra – according to fruit content; e.g.: Mango jam extra, organically
grown7
¨ Manufacturer
Name and address of the manufacturer, importer, exporter or product trader, plus
country of origin.
¨ List of contents
A list of ingredients and additives in the jam, beginning with the heaviest proportion
of total weight at the time of packaging
¨ Details of the total sugar content
Total sugar content per 100 g product (measured refract metrically at 20 °C) must
be represented with the words “Total sugar content ….g per 100 g”.
¨ Details of fruit content
The fruit content per 100 g product must be given with the words “manufactured
from….g fruit per 100 g”.
¨ Notice about cooling
The notice about storing the product in a cool place must be given with the words:
“After opening, store in a cool place”.
¨ Weight
Details of the total weight in grams
¨ Best before date
The ‘Best before …’ details must include day, month and year; e.g.. best before
30.11.2001
¨ Batch number
Transport packaging
A form of transport packaging is required to ship the sales packages. In choosing
them, the following aspects should be heeded:
¨ Transport packaging made, for example, out of cardboard, should be strong
enough to protect the contents against being damaged by outside pressure.
¨ The packaging should be dimensioned to allow the contents to be held firmly,
but not too tightly in place.
7 Compare footnote No. 5
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 20
¨ The dimensions should be compatible with standard pallet and container
dimensions.
Information printed on transport packaging
The transport packaging should display details of the following:
¨ Name and address of the manufacturer/packer and country of origin
¨ Description of the product and its quality class
¨ Year harvested
¨ Net weight, number
¨ Batch number
¨ Destination, with the trader’s/importer’s address
¨ Visible indication of the organic origin of the product8
Storage
The jams should be stored in a dark, cool room at temperatures of max. 15°C.
Under optimum conditions, jam may be stored for 1-2 years.
If the organic product is being stored in a single warehouse together with
conventional mango jam mixing of the different qualities must be avoided. This is
best achieved using the following methods:
¨ Training and informing of warehouse personnel
¨ Explicit signs in the warehouse (silos, pallets, tanks etc.)
¨ Colour differentiation (e.g. green for the organic product)
¨ Incoming/dispatched goods separately documented (warehouse logbook)
It is prohibited to carry out chemical storage measures (e.g. gassing with methyl
bromide) in mixed storage spaces. Wherever possible, storing both organic and
conventional products together in the same warehouse should be avoided.
3.4. Canned mangoes
3.4.1. Processing
Canned foods are products that can be stored over a long period in airtight
containers (metal or glass jars). They are preserved mainly by heat treatment,
during which the micro-organisms present in the fruit are significantly reduced in
number, or their development so restricted, that they are prevented from spoiling the
product.
8 compare footnote No. 2
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 21
The process involved in turning fresh fruit into canned products is described
schematically, and then in more detail below:
Fruit

Sorting

Washing

Peeling and sorting

Pulping

Filling into jars or cans with
syrup

Vacuum sealing

Pasteurising or sterilising

Cooling

Labelling and storage
Sorting
After harvesting, the fruits are sorted, because only those that are fresh, ripe and
not rotten can be used to make jams. Jams can also be made from previously
prepared, frozen fruits and pulp.
Washing
The fruit should be washed very carefully as it can easily be damaged.
Peeling and sorting
This follows the procedure of removing leaves, wooden pieces, pips or seeds and
peel. Peeling is often done manually, or with knives, yet sometimes the skin is
loosened with steam and then subsequently rubbed away mechanically. Finally, the
fruits are sorted again to remove any blackened pieces, bits of peeling, seeds etc.
Pulping
The peeled fruit can be cut into a variety of shapes, according to type (indicated by
the crosses in the table). The shape of the cut fruit must be given on the can (slices,
diced, pieces etc.).
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 22
Description Cut shape Pineapple
Mango Papaya Banana
Whole fruit Peeled X
Slices Slices of fruit cut into
approximately the same
size
X X X X
Half slices Uniformly cut, semi-circle
shaped slices.
X
Diced Fruit cut into dice shapes
of roughly the same size.
X X X
Balls Fruit pulp pieces cut into
roughly ball shapes
X
Pieces Pieces of fruit cut into
irregular shapes
X
Grated Irregular thin strips and
pieces of fruit
X
Chunks Large regularly cut
pieces of pineapple
X
Titbits Trapeze-shaped
segments of pineapple
X
Filling in jars or cans
The cut pieces are now filled into jars or cans and covered with syrup. Additional
information must be given on the can according to the sugar content of the syrup.
Sugar concentration* of the syrup Description on the can
9-14 % Very lightly sugared
14-17 % Lightly sugared
17-20 % Sugared
over 20 % Strongly sugared
* The sugar must be organically grown.
If the appropriate fruit juice has been used as syrup then “…in natural juice” must be
included on the label, e.g.: Mango in natural juice.
Vacuum sealing, pasteurising or sterilising
After the jars or cans have been vacuum sealed, they are either pasteurised
(temperatures above 80°C) or sterilised (temperatures above 100°C).
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 23
Cooling
After the heating process, the canned fruits are first cooled to 40°C, and then
subsequently down to storage temperature.
Labelling and storage
After they have been cooled, the canned fruits are labelled and stored.
3.4.2. Quality requirements
In addition to the previously listed quality requirements, such as clearly defined
sugar concentrations of the syrup and shapes specific to certain fruits, the contents
should also conform to the following characteristics. These quality requirements,
with their minimum and maximum values, are generally issued by the authorities or
importers. Yet agreements may be reached between individual manufacturers and
importers upon different values, providing they still conform to official requirements.
Quality requirements Minimum and maximum values
Taste and smell Variety-specific, aromatic, not mouldy
Cleanliness Free of foreign substances such as peel,
stalks etc.
Mycotoxins
Aflatoxins B1 max. 2 Sg/kg
Total aflatoxines B1, B2, G1, G2 max. 4 Sg/kg
Patulin max. 50 Sg/kg
Residue
Pesticide Not measurable
Sulphur oxide Not measurable
Bromide Not measurable
Ethylene oxide Not measurable
In order to conform to the quality requirements, and to prevent the fruit becoming
contaminated, all preparations must be carried out under clean, hygienic and
acceptable conditions. The following aspects must be heeded:
¨ Equipment (tubs, knives etc.), as well as working surfaces (tables etc.) and
preparing and storage rooms, should be cleaned regularly.
¨ Personnel should be healthy, and have the possibility to wash themselves, or at
least their hands (washrooms, toilets) and wear clean, washable garments.
¨ Water used for cleansing purposes must be free from faeces and other
contaminants.
¨ Animals or animal faeces must not come into contact with the processed fruits.
3.4.3. Packaging and storage
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 24
Packaging type and material
In order to be exported to Europe, the fruits can be packed into single or wholesale
packages (bulk) made of glass, aluminium or tin cans.
Details given on packaging
The label on the jar must display the following:
¨ Product name (‘Trade name’)
The name of the product, consisting of: Name of the fruit with or without the
description extra – according to fruit content; e.g.: Mangoes in slices, lightly
sugared, organically grown9
¨ Manufacturer
Name and address of the manufacturer, importer, exporter or product trader, plus
country of origin.
¨ List of contents
A list of ingredients and additives in the jam, beginning with the heaviest proportion
of total weight at the time of packaging
¨ Weight
Total and dry weight of the fruit
The numbers describing the weight of the contents must be of the following sizes
Weight of contents Letter size
Less than 50 g 2 mm
More than 50 g to 200 g 3 mm
More than 200 g to 1000 g 4 mm
More than 1000 g 6 mm
¨ Best before date
The ‘Best before …’ details must include day, month and year; e.g.. best before
30.11.2001
¨ Batch number
Transport packaging
A form of transport packaging is required to ship the sales packages. In choosing
them, the following aspects should be heeded:
¨ Transport packaging made, for example, out of cardboard, should be strong
enough to protect the contents against being damaged by outside pressure.
¨ The packaging should be dimensioned to allow the contents to be held firmly,
but not too tightly in place.
¨ The dimensions should be compatible with standard pallet and container
dimensions.
9 compare footnote No.5
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 25
Information printed on transport packaging
The transport packaging should display details of the following:
¨ Name and address of the manufacturer/packer and country of origin
¨ Description of the product and its quality class
¨ Year harvested
¨ Net weight, number
¨ Batch number
¨ Destination, with the trader’s/importer’s address
¨ Visible notice of the organic origin of the product10
Storage
The conserved fruit (especially in jars) should be stored in dark rooms at low
temperatures (max. 15°C). Under optimum conditions, conserved fruit can be stored
for 1 year (when pasteurised) or 2 years (when sterilised).
If the organic product is being stored in a single warehouse together with
conventional canned mangoes mixing of the different qualities must be avoided.
This is best achieved using the following methods:
¨ Training and informing of warehouse personnel
¨ Explicit signs in the warehouse (silos, pallets, tanks etc.)
¨ Colour differentiation (e.g. green for the organic product)
¨ Incoming/dispatched goods separately documented (warehouse logbook)
It is prohibited to carry out chemical storage measures (e.g. gassing with methyl
bromide) in mixed storage spaces. Wherever possible, storing both organic and
conventional products together in the same warehouse should be avoided.
3.5. Mango pulp
3.5.1. Processing
Canned foods are products that can be stored over a long period in airtight
containers (metal or glass jars). They are preserved mainly by heat treatment,
during which the micro-organisms present in the fruit are significantly reduced in
number, or their development so restricted, that they are prevented from spoiling the
product.
10 compare footnote No. 6
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 26
The process involved in turning fresh fruit into canned products is described
schematically, and then in more detail below:
Fruit

Sorting

Washing

Peeling and sorting

Pulping and straining

De-aeration (partially)

Pasteurising or sterilising

Filling

Cooling, labelling and storage
Manufacture of mango pulp
¨ To manufacture mango pulp, only fresh, ripe and non-mouldy fruit should be
used. After harvesting, the fruits are sorted, careful washed and peeled. Heattreating
them makes peeling easier by either placing them in a 90°C bath for 5
minutes, or for 2-3 min. in steam.
¨ Afterwards, the fruits are placed in a straining machine with strong rotors and
large-meshed sieve, where they are reduced in size without harming the pips. The
pulp is pressed out, while the pips and peel residue or removed at the outlet to the
machine. Small pieces of skin and fibres can be removed by using machines with
several stages of sieve (with 0.8, 0.6 and/or 0.4 mm sieves). It is advisable to use
sieves smaller than 0.5 mm in order to remove all of the fibres and thus produce a
homogenous product which will keep longer. To avoid discoloration and reduce the
loss of vitamin C during storage, it is advisable to aerate the pulp with a suitable
aeration device.
¨ Finally, the pulp is heated in a heat-exchanger up to 95°C for 2 minutes, in order
to kill off any micro-organisms and to de-activate any enzymes . The mango pulp
can now be filled into tin cans whilst still hot, whereby the cans are sealed while
being steamed, the temperature maintained for 5 min., and then rapidly cooled
down. At temperatures of around 15°C, the pulp can be stored for up to 1 year. After
pasteurising, the pulp can also be cooled down and filled into polyethylene bags
placed in 50-200 kg barrels. It is then rapidly frozen, and can be stored at -18°C for
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 27
18 months. Pulp which has been filled under antiseptic conditions (bag-in-box) can
be stored for up to 1 year at room temperature.
3.5.2. Quality requirements
These quality requirements, with their minimum and maximum values, are generally
issued by the authorities or importers. Yet agreements may be reached between
individual manufacturers and importers upon different values, providing they still
conform to official requirements.
Quality requirements Minimum and maximum values
Smell and taste Variety-specific, aromatic
Cleanliness Free of foreign substances such as peel, stalks
etc.
Relative density (20/20) for pineapple
juice
min 1.045
Brix degree for pineapple juice min 11.2 %
Relative density (20/20) for Banana
pulp
min 1.083
Brix degree for Banana pulp min 20.0 %
Relative density (20/20) for Mango
pulp
min 1.057
Brix degree for Mango pulp min 14.0 %
Ethanol max 3.0 g/kg
Volatile acids, evaluated as acetic acid max 0.4 g/kg
Lactic acid max 0.5 g/kg
D-Malic acid Not measurable
Sulphuric acid Not measurable
Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) max 20 mg/kg
Heavy metals
Arsenic (As) max 0.1 mg/kg
Lead (Pb) max 0.2 mg/kg
Copper (Cu) max 5.0 mg/kg
Zinc (Zn) max 5.0 mg/kg
Iron (Fe) max 5.0 mg/kg
Tin (Sn) max 1.0 mg/kg
Mercury (Hg) max 0.01 mg/kg
Cadmium (Cd) max 0.02 mg/kg
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 28
Residues
Pesticide Not measurable
Sulphur oxide Not measurable
Bromide Not measurable
Ethylene oxide Not measurable
Mycotoxins
Aflatoxin B1 max 2 Sg/kg
Total aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 max 4 Sg/kg
Patulin max 50 Sg/kg
In order to conform to the quality requirements, and to prevent the fruit becoming
contaminated, all preparations must be carried out under clean, hygienic and
acceptable conditions. The following aspects must be heeded:
¨ Equipment (tubs, knives etc.), as well as working surfaces (tables etc.) and
preparing and storage rooms, should be cleaned regularly.
¨ Personnel should be healthy, and have the possibility to wash themselves, or at
least their hands (washrooms, toilets) and wear clean, washable garments.
¨ Water used for cleansing purposes must be free from faeces and other
contaminants.
¨ Animals or animal faeces must not come into contact with the processed fruit
3.5.3. Packaging and storage
Packaging type and material
In order to be exported to Europe, the pulp/juices can be packed into single or
wholesale packages (bulk) consisting of glass jars, tin cans or polyethylene or
polypropylene bags, and also filled antiseptically into ‘bag-in-boxes’.
Details given on packaging
The label on the jar must display the following:
¨ Product name (‘Trade name’)
The name of the product, e.g.: Mango pulp, grown organically11
¨ Manufacturer
Name and address of the manufacturer, importer, exporter or product trader, plus
country of origin.
¨ List of contents
A list of ingredients and additives, beginning with the heaviest proportion of total
weight at the time of packaging, e.g.: Mangoes, citric acid…
¨ Weight
11 compare footnote No. 5
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 29
Total weight
The numbers describing the weight of the contents must be of the following sizes
Weight of contents Letter size
Less than 50 g 2 mm
More than 50 g to 200 g 3 mm
More than 200 g to 1000 g 4 mm
More than 1000 g 6 mm
Best before date
The ‘Best before …’ details must include day, month and year; e.g.. best before
30.11.2001
¨ Batch number
Transport packaging
A form of transport packaging is required to ship the sales packages. In choosing
them, the following aspects should be heeded:
¨ Transport packaging made, for example, out of cardboard, should be strong
enough to protect the contents against being damaged by outside pressure.
¨ The packaging should be dimensioned to allow the contents to be held firmly,
but not too tightly in place.
¨ The dimensions should be compatible with standard pallet and container
dimensions.
Information printed on transport packaging
The transport packaging should display details of the following:
¨ Name and address of the manufacturer/packer and country of origin
¨ Description of the product and its quality class
¨ Year harvested
¨ Net weight, number
¨ Batch number
¨ Destination, with the trader’s/importer’s address
¨ Visible notice of the organic origin of the product12
Storage
Pasteurised pineapple juice, as well as pasteurised banana, mango and papaya
pulp can be stored as follows:
12 compare footnote No.6
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 30
Packaging material/
storage temperature
Pineapple
juice
Banana
pulp
Mango pulp Papaya
pulp
Tin cans/glass jars
storage temperature below 15°C
1 year 1 year 1 year 9-12 months
Polyethylene bags/
Deep frozen at -18°C
– 18 months 18 months 12 months
Filled antiseptically, bag-in-box/
Room temperature
1 year 1 year 1 year 6-9 months
If the organic product is being stored in a single warehouse together with
conventional mango pulp mixing of the different qualities must be avoided. This is
best achieved using the following methods:
¨ Training and informing of warehouse personnel
¨ Explicit signs in the warehouse (silos, pallets, tanks etc.)
¨ Colour differentiation (e.g. green for the organic product)
¨ Incoming/dispatched goods separately documented (warehouse logbook)
It is prohibited to carry out chemical storage measures (e.g. gassing with methyl
bromide) in mixed storage spaces. Wherever possible, storing both organic and
conventional products together in the same warehouse should be avoided.
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 31
Annex: Quality Requirements
The ‘UN/ECE standard FFV – 45’ defines the quality requirements for trading with
fresh mangoes. These do not necessarily have to be adhered to, yet they supply
recommended guidelines. Mangoes intended for export are not included here.
Different minimum and maximum values can be agreed between importers and
exporters, providing they do not clash with official regulations.
The following is an excerpt from ‘UN/ECE standard FFV – 45 for mangoes’:
I. Defining terms
These standards apply to mangoes Mangifera indica L., that are delivered fresh to
consumers.
lI. Quality characteristics regulations
a. Minimum requirements
The mangoes must be as follows:
¨ Fresh and healthy
¨ Clean, practically free of visible foreign substances
¨ Practically free of pests and damage caused by them
¨ Free of fungus
¨ Free of bruising and frost-damage
¨ Free of strange taste of smell
¨ Well developed, ripe
b. Classifications
Mangoes are sold in three categories:
¨ Class extra
Mangoes in this class must be of the highest quality. They must possess the
characteristics typical of their variety and/or trading type. The fruits must be
unblemished, with the exception of very light surface flaws that do not detract from
the fruit’s general appearance, quality, the time it will keep.
¨ Class I
Mangoes in this class must be of good quality. They must possess the
characteristics typical of their variety and/or trading type. The following blemishes
are permissible, providing they do not detract from the fruit’s general appearance,
quality, the time it will keep and the presentation of the bunch or cluster in their
packaging:
¨ Slightly misshapen
¨ Light flaws in the skin caused by friction or by other means, providing the area
does not exceed 3, 4 or 5 cm2 of the total surface area of the appropriate size class
A, B, or C.
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 32
¨ Class II
This class is composed of those mangoes that cannot be placed in the upper
classes, yet which fulfil the definitions of minimum requirements. The following faults
are allowed, providing the mangoes retain their essential characteristics in terms of
quality, preservation and presentation:
¨ Shape defects,
¨ Skin flaws, caused by scratches, friction or other means, providing the area does
not exceed 5, 6 or 7 cm2 of the total surface area of the appropriate size class A, B,
or C.
III. Size classification regulations
Mangoes are sorted according to their weight. The fruits must weigh at least 200
grams.
Size classes weight Maximum differences in weight within a class
A 200 – 350 g 75 g
B 351 – 550 g 100 g
C 551 – 800 g 125 g
IV. Tolerance regulations
Not dealt with here.
V. Presentation regulations
a. Uniformity
¨ The contents of a carton must be uniform, and may only contain mangoes of
identical origin, variety and/or trade type, and quality.
¨ The visible part of the carton must be representative of the entire contents.
b. Packaging
¨ The mangoes must be packed in a way that ensures they are sufficiently
protected
¨ Packing material used inside the carton must be new, clean, and so shaped that
it cannot cause any damage to either the inside or outside of the fruit. The usage of
materials such as papers and stickers with company details on them is permitted
providing the no toxic inks, dyes or glues have been used.
¨ The packaging must be free of all other materials.
VI. Regulations of carton labelling
Each carton must display the following details in unbroken, legible, permanent
letters visible from the outside:
a. Identification
II Special section: Organic Mango Cultivation
Naturland e.V. – 2nd edition 2001 page 33
¨ Name and address of the exporter and packer
b. Type of product
¨ ”Mangoes”, when the contents are not visible
¨ Name of the variety
c. Origin of product
¨ Country of origin, and optionally, national, regional or local description
d. Commercial characteristics
¨ Class
¨ Size (expressed in min. and max. weight)
¨ Size code (optional)
¨ Number of fruits
Although the following values are not laid down in the ‘UN/ECE standard FFV
– 45 for mangoes’ they should nevertheless be adhered to:
Quality characteristics Minimum and maximum values
Heavy metals
lead (Pb) max. 0.50 mg/kg
Cadmium (Cd) max. 0.05 mg/kg
Mercury (Hg) max. 0.03 mg/kg
Residues
Pesticides not measurable
Sulphur oxide not measurable
Bromide not measurable
Ethylene oxide not measurable

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