Growing Organic Mangoes in the Philippines


The growing market demands both domestic and export for organically grown fruits and vegetables compel us to learn to grow ORGANIC MANGO. This is a simple and basic study to help mango growers produce naturally grown mango free from toxic chemical residue, using both herbal organic concentrates and biotechnology with integrated pest management.

• Mango (Mangifera indica) is the national fruit of the Philippines.
• It has a wide market potential both domestic and international exports.
• It is a high value crop where mango grower can earn from P100,000.00 to P500,000.00 per hectare per year, provided planted at the right distance of 20×20 m+1, with a population of 50 hills per hectare and properly cared.
• It is suitable on upland areas with abundant sunlight and adequate moisture.
• Mango is a centennial crop that three or more family generation can benefit.
• It is a good retirement insurance crop where production increase as trees grow bigger and older.

Mango Production

Estimated production 50 trees per hectare. (Planting distance: 20 x 20 +1)

Age Range of Trees in Years Estimated Production per Trees in Kilos Gross Sales per Hectare at 50 trees x P10 Cost of Production at P4.00 per kilo Gross Profit or Income per hectare with 50 trees
1 to 5 No production Juvenile Trees P50,000.00 (P50,000.00)
5 to 10 50 P25,000.00 P10,000.00 P15,000.00
10 to 15 200 100,000.00 40,000.00 60,000.00
15 to 20 500 250,000.00 100,000.00 150,000.00
20 to 25 800 400,000.00 160,000.00 240,000.00
25 to 30 1,000 500,000.00 200,000.00 300,000.00
30 to 35 1,200 600,000.00 240,000.00 360,000.00
35 to 40 1,500 750,000.00 300,000.00 450,000.00
40 to 45 1,800 900,000.00 360,000.00 540,000.00
45 to 50 2,000 1,000,000.00 400,000.00 600,000.00

Mango is a high value and big earner crop, compared to traditional crops like rice, corn, coconut and sugarcane where income ranges only from P15,000.00 to P60,000.00 per hectare per year. This is why most farmers growing traditional crops remain poor. Mango can easily give P100,000.00 to P300,000.00 per hectare per year with trees 10 to 20 years old.

It is very important to plant the Philippine Golden Mango (carabao variety) at a distance of no less than 15 meters apart since by nature it is a big tree. It can only give its optimum or maximum productivity if its natural environment is favorable to its natural habitat. GENSAFCO recommends planting at 20 x 20 meters + 1 hill at the center of four trees or square forming a quincunx layout. This will have a population of 50 trees per hectare.


The following are primary commercial mango products:
• Fresh table fruit, ripe and green.
• Dried or dehydrated ripe mango fruit.
• Mango Puree, concentrate, nectar and juices.

Secondary mango products:
• Mango fruit preserves in syrup, salted or fermented.
• Chilled fresh mango fruits. (Frozen fresh halves)
• Green mango pickle (Burong mangga)
• Powdered mango (green and ripe)

Other mango products and by-products:
• Mango seeds for nursery planting materials.
• Mango seeds and shell for feeds
• Mango peel. seeds, leaves, branches for organic fertilizer.
• Mango wood for lumber and furniture making and fruit boxes..
• Specialize fruit, leaves and plant extract for drugs and medicine.
• Other products under development.


Mango is a tropical tree. It can grow in most landmasses along and near the equator/ Mango can be grown in almost all regions of the Philippines, but they are found to be more productive if grown in the following environmental conditions:

1. Elevation within 600 meters from sea level up to 800 meters is still tolerable.
2. Mangoes need a dry period of 3 to 5 months to induce maturity of vegetative parts and flower. Fruit development also needs plenty of sunlight up to 120 -135 days after flower induction. Mango are biennial bearer, fruits every two years.
3. The ideal temperature for mango growing is 21degree C to 27degreeC.
4. Soils preferred are deep loamy, rich in organic matter, with balance content of macro and micro nutrient elements.
5. Water requirement: The land is slightly sloping, well drain but with good moisture holding capacity. Optimum moisture or water supply for mango is very important.
6. Soil pH of 6 to 7 is ideal for mango. It is at this level, nutrients are available.
7. Topography of the land ranges from flat to rolling not exceeding 45 degrees gradient. Stiff mountainsides are also planted to mango, but with difficulty in production management.
8. Mango needs plenty of sunlight. Fully grown mango trees should have enough sunlight from morning to evening, at the top of its crown to base of trunk. Shading even partially will limit its productivity. Crowded branch and foliage reduce yield.
9. Moderate airflow or wind is needed by mango trees to allow aeration to prevent the buildup of pest and diseases within the tree crown. Avoid strong winds especially during flowering and fruiting stage by growing windbreaker trees.


A few pointers in establishing a good productive mango orchard:

1. Look for the ideal site of a mango farm base on the cultural requirement ideal for mango. Most sunny areas with good soil moisture in the Philippines are suitable.
2. Select carefully your planting materials. Be sure you get the right variety and strain the market demands. Grafted seedlings are recommended to have uniform tree production. The Philippine Golden (carabao – Lamao selection) variety is preferred.
3. The farm should be accessible with good roads and abundant water supply for irrigation and spraying.
4. Clear field of all trees and structure that will shed the trees to allow full sunshine and free airflow. Set rows at east-west orientation. Better plant them on triangle layout.
5. Layout the farm and trees with access in-farm roads, farm house, working shed, water system and other farm structures.
6. Recommended planting distance is 20 x 20 + 1 meters quincunx with 50 trees population per hectare. The center hill may be eliminated when trees become bigger and crowded at 20 to 30 years old.
7. Weed, cultivate, fertilize and irrigate your trees regularly every 3 months. Combine organic and chemical fertilizers for faster and healthy growth. Use farm compost.

For orchards devoted to grow organic fruits; natural farming practices using organic and biological farm practices, without chemical inputs may be adopted. There is a growing market demand for organically grown fruits including mango.

Plant Propagation
Methods of Propagation
b. Sexual propagation with seeds. The trees grow big and productive in 7-15 years. However, fruits may not be the same with genetic variations.
c. Asexual propagation – grafting. Trees start bearing as early as 3–5 years. They produce more uniform true to type fruits, coming from the same mother tree.

Field Planting
Steps in Field Planting:
1. Propagate and harden the seedlings or planting materials. Expose to direct sunlight at least one week before field planting. Spray or drench with herbal pesticide. (HOC).
2. Clear the field, plow and harrow if possible.
3. Stake planting site 20 x 20 + 1m quincunx or 15 x 15m triangle to have 50 hills / ha..
4. Dig 1 cubic meter holes and replace the soil with rich/fertile topsoil and fully decomposed organic matter or organic fertilizer. Earthworm casting or is ideal mix to topsoil. Fully decomposed animal and plant waste with beneficial bacteria and fungi.
5. Planting procedure:
a. Drench the seedling in plastic bag and press the soil to loosen it in the bag.
b. Make a hole and pour in water to drench the soil.
c. Gently remove seedling from plastic bag and place in hole, cover and press soil.
d. Place a stake firmly besides the seedling and if needed tie the seedling to it.


The health, vigor and size of the mango trees determine its productivity. Even if the Philippine Golden mango is biennial in nature, it can be made to bear yearly or more often if the right cultural management is done.

1. Fence and secure the area from stray animals and intruders that may damage the plants. Security is most needed 30 days up to harvest.

2. Practice clean culture. Cultivate and weed regularly. Remove all trees and shrubs that serve as host to insect pest and diseases.

3. The trees should not shed one another. Prune off overcrowded branches. Mango is a terminal bearer, so avoid pruning off healthy terminal fruiting shoot buds.

4. Irrigate and keep the soil moist most at all times. Less water or drier soil is preferred one month before flower induction and one month before harvest. Avoid water logging by providing suitable drainage.

5. Fertilize quarterly with abundant organic fertilizer with macro and trace mineral elements. Spray herbal organic concentrate fertilizer on leaves and fruits when growth and fruit development needs supplemental nutrition.

Essential Plant Food Elements


From water and air.

MACRONUTRIENTSFrom soil and fertilizers MICRONUTRIENTSFrom soil and fertilizer
1. Carbon 1. Nitrogen 1. Zinc
2. Hydrogen 2. Phosphorous 2. Iron
3. Oxygen 3. Potash 3. Boron
  4. Calcium 4. Molybdenum
  5. Sulfur 5. Copper
  6. Magnesium 6. Manganese
    7. Chlorine

Kinds of Organic Fertilizers:

a. Foliar organic fertilizers derived from fermented animal of plants like fish and fruit amino acid.
b. Decomposed animal waste mixed with plant residues with beneficial microorganisms.
c. Vermin-compost or earthworm casting fed with decomposing organic materials. One of the rich form of organic fertilizer with humic acid, a growth promoting and beneficial microorganisms.
d. Sludge or liquid organic waste materials rich in plant food nutrient with beneficial microorganisms.
e. Green manure. These are young plants usually legumes or beans that are plowed under and mixed with the soil during flowering stage.
f. Soil and seed inoculate such as nitrogen fixing bacteria and other microorganisms that help decompose organic materials.

6. Control pest and diseases. Spray herbal organic insecticides and fungicides. Spray during
a. Flushing of young leaves,
b. Before flower induction,
c. At bud break and flower elongation,
d. During fruit formation and development
e. Before bagging and
f. One month before harvest.
Spray the entire tree, leaves, branches, stem and the ground surrounding the trunk. Note that most pest and diseases come from the soil surrounding the tree.

7. Use biological controls to control insect pest and diseases are preferred.
(Birds, animals, insects, bacteria, fungi and other living organisms that help control pests)
a. Use of insect predators and parasites like trichogramma, braconids and pirate bugs to counter insect pests.
b. Use of microorganisms such as beneficial bacteria and fungi to counter diseases and insect pests.
c. Allow bio-diversity and balance ecosystem in the farm by maintaining green belts or mini forest to shelter and provide breeding and favorable environment for all types of living organisms that will balance and prevent the breakout of infestation of one or more pests.

8. Natural Flower induction:
While Potassium Nitrate and other chemicals are now available in the market to induce flowering and fruiting, still there are natural ways of flower induction and fruiting. Among them are the following:
a. Seasonal fruiting. These occur when the trees are healthy and the season for flowering and fruiting comes usually from November to March at the start of dry season.
b. Smoking tree foliage when they reach maturity.
c. Root pruning and partial girdling will also induce flowering and fruiting as these are forms of stresses.
d. Application of high dosage of Phosphorous and Potash fertilizer with adequate micro-nutrients will also hasten flowering and fruiting.

9. Care and management of flowers and fruit development.
As soon as the fruiting buds start breaking (Bud Break) adult insect pests hibernating or just waiting for new vegetative growth will be attracted to the bud and start laying eggs on them and the growing inflorescence.
Some control measures:
a. Sanitize the tree by spray and drenching the whole tree (soil, trunk, branches and leaves) with Herbal Organic Concentrate (HOC-4n1) with four properties (Pest repellant, insecticide, fungicide and foliar fertilizer) on a weekly interval starting with flower induction to fruit development. Spray after the rain.
b. Remove all disease and infested parts of the tree, weeds and debris.












ENHANCE POLLINATION (Attract Pollinators)





IPM (BIOCON + HOC + Bagging)





The regular season for mango is flowering from November to February and harvest from March to June. This is during the summer months. The Philippine Golden carabao mango is a biennial bearer. This means that by it’s nature it bears a good harvest every two years, but may bear every year too if conditions are favorable such as the general health of the tree and summer intensity of the weather condition.

Understanding the natural laws governing the growth and production of mango will help us growers maintain their health and productivity through the years. The rainy or wet season will allow the tree to grow, rejuvenate and store food nutrients for its fruiting stage during the summer months where flowering and fruiting naturally occur.


Mango growers can produce mango fruits during the off-season especially in Mindanao, being outside the typhoon belt. Other areas of the country with less expected typhoon and heavy rains might venture into producing off-season fruits as the supply is low, demand is high and price is good.

Season Production November to February March to June
Off Season Production March to October July to February

Producing mango during off-season has its own unique challenges. Production falls during the rainy season. This will require a special care and cultural management. Be ready to spray herbal fungicide every after rain during flowering and early fruit development to prevent fungal infection and dropping.

1. Follow a one-year cycle of eight (8) months rejuvenation (from harvest to flower induction) and four (4) months of production (from flower induction to harvest.) Remember, plants also need time to absorb plant nutrients from soil, water and atmosphere, carry them to the leaves for photosynthesis, then transport cooked nutrient to different parts of the plant for food storage and utilization for growth, flowering and fruiting.

2. The secret of success and productivity lies in proper rejuvenation of the trees immediately after harvest up to induction and care of flowers and fruits to full maturity.

3. After harvest by pruning, fertilization with high nitrogen and irrigating immediately to induce new flushing. After 4 months cultivate around the trunk under cover of canopy to partially root prune and fertilize with high potash to induce maturity will make the tree ready for flower induction 2 to 4 months hence. This will effectively prevent new flushing, make the tree dormant and store nutrients for flowering and fruiting.


Mango trees flower and fruit when it is healthy and ready to fruit. Stress will help induce flowering during dry season for it’s seasonal bearing However flower can be induced by smoking, partial girdling branch stretching or other mechanical or chemical treatments. Chemical flower induction by using Potassium nitrate (KNO3) was introduced by Dr. Ramon Barba after his successful research in 1970 at UPLB, College, Laguna, Philippines. A new herbal organic flower Inducer is now being formulated by chemist in Mindanao.


It is easy to induce the trees to flower, but if the tree is not well prepared, the flowers will just fall off. The tree should be really healthy with adequate nutrient storage to support and sustain flowering and fruit development up to full maturity and harvest.

Here are a few pointers to remember and adopt:

1. Provide enough fertilizer and nutrient to the plant through the soil. Never rely only on foliar fertilization. That is only to augment nutrient needs during the production period (flowering to fruit development). To be sure, apply enough organic fertilizer every 6 months to every tree augmented with chemical fertilizer.

2. Insure that there is adequate soil moisture at all times. Over water is not good.

3. Protect the trees with biological and organic herbal pesticides and fungicides.

4. Induce the trees to flush after harvest to have new shoot for next season fruiting.

5. Two months after flushing when the leaves start maturing, apply fertilizer rich in phosphorous and potash to keep trees maturing and dormant in preparation for next season’s fruiting. Use organic fertilizer with guano and burnt rice hull or ash.

In selecting trees for flower induction, take note of the following:

1. The tree must have full mature leaves and buds. The leaves are crispy; dark-green in color, healthy plum dormant bud tips. At least 8-10 months rejuvenation.

2. The tree and leaves should be dry, with no rain expected within 6 hours from spraying.

3. Trees that fruited the previous season but have not flushed should not be induced to flower. Many contractors and growers who want fast money often violate this practice. To induce the tree to flush, irrigate and fertilize with higher dosage of nitrogen, and or spray the leaves with half dose of Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) mixed with foliar fertilizer.

4. Spraying and drenching the whole plant from the base of trunk to branches and leaves with foliar fertilizer rich in amino acid or other organic weak acid and containing micro-nutrient elements will help induce flushing. The use of Herbal Organic Concentrate (HOC) and homemade lime sulfur have been found to induce new vegetative growth.


When not to use Use High Dosage Use Low Dosage
1. When the tree is too small, young or juvenile.2. When the leaves and buds are young.3. When the tree is weak and sickly.

4. During rainy weather.

5. Just after harvest or when the tree has fruits or flushing.

 1. When Trees are just starting to mature.2. Leaves and buds are maturing3. The tree is healthy, with vigorous buds and leaves.

4. During cloudy weather.

5. Five to seven months after harvest after rejuvenation & mature.

 1. When trees are big, old or fully mature.2. When leaves and buds are fully mature.3. The tree is healthy with dormant-buds.

4. During host sunny weather.

5. Eight to ten months after harvest after, rejuvenation & dormant.


1. Check on the fruiting buds’ readiness. The buds are slightly rounded and mature or dormant, ready to flower. .
2. If the buds are flattening with small dormant buds at the sides, they are most likely new flushing buds for vegetative growth for next season’s fruiting.
3. The soil and the trees are dry. If it rained the previous days and the atmosphere is humid, induction may result to flushing or flowering with flushing.
4. Choose to induce during dry hot months or dry days. Flower induction up to 45 days during the early fruit formation are the most critical period where the flowers and young fruits are susceptible to infection and infestations.
5. As a general rule, a flowering bud-stick fruits only once. It needs to flush and produce new bud-stick for subsequent fruiting. Mangoes are usually terminal fruiting, but super healthy trees some times flower and fruit from dormant buds of big branches.
6. A mango tree needs enough time at least 8 to 10 months to accumulate and store food nutrients in its system to support flowering and fruiting.
7. Too much flowering as in 90 to 100% of foliage flower are dangerous, since too much energy is released by the plant, and there will not be enough left for fruit development. Usual result is massive dropping and only a few fruits remain or even total crop fall. A 40 to 60% foliage flowering would be ideal to insure full fruit development with bigger and better quality harvest.
8. Water or moisture is very much needed from bud emergence to one month before harvest to insure availability of plant food nutrients. The tree needs dry and sunny days before and during flowering’ and during fruit maturing to one month before harvest to insure full maturing, where fruits do not crack or drop during the final stage up to harvest.


Natural farming methods of controlling pest and diseases in growing organic mango: Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the use of different practical yet low cost methods:

1. Cultural practices that includes the right planting distance, periodic weeding and cultivation, irrigation and drainage, pruning, spraying, etc. See to it that the water source is not contaminated or carrier of pest and diseases.
2. The use of baits and insect traps (light traps, sweet juice tuba trap).
3. Spraying with herbal organic preparations with pest repellant, insecticide and fungicidal properties (HOC).
4. The use of beneficial microorganisms that control pest and diseases.
5. The use of insect predators, parasites like trichogramma, braconids, and pirate bug.
6. Crop rotation or inter-cropping with plants that will repel or reduce infestation.
7. Schedule and time production during least pest infestation and disease prevalence. There is less insect pest and diseases during summer months.
8. Cultivate and fertilize the soil around the base of the trunk periodically with organic fertilizer derived from herbs with pesticide and fungicidal properties as well as beneficial microorganisms.
9. Remove diseased or infested fruits and vegetative parts of the tree and dispose of them properly such as removing them from the field, burning, bury or composting them for fertilizer. Practice clean culture.

Take note: When spraying trees with herbal organic concentrate (HOC) start with the soil surrounding the trunk, upward around the trunk, branches then the underside of the leaves or foliage and last the top of leaves and crown. Insect pest and diseases comes from the soil and stay in trunk and branch where they hibernate and wait then wake or become active when new growth appears such as flushing and flowering to fruiting.

Remember that when God created the universe, the earth and nature, it was complete and balanced. Man interfered with this balance in the environment and ecosystem for the desire to produce more of their selected and preferred crops, in the process destroying the equilibrium and disrupting natural laws and life. Its ill effects of toxic synthetic chemicals are now being manifested in making the land less productive and the life span of man is shortening. Other life forms are disappearing. It is time for us to learn natural laws and adopt Natural Farming System.

Before 1950 even up to 1970 when potassium nitrate was discovered by Dr. Ramon Barba as an effective flower Inducer for mango, the trees were left alone to nature and bear fruits during season. Mango owners just harvested mango fruits without caring for the trees, just like coconut farmers. Today, as the prices of chemical inputs get too high, mango growers are starting to leave the mango trees to the care of nature. Added to this is the growing demand for chemical free mango or naturally grown fruits.

We are now introducing the use of herbal organic pest and disease control and biological measures. Our latest experience in growing organic mango show that natural farming system is easier to learn by farmers and cost lower.


One Year Prod. Cycle Stage of Growth Activity/Operation
7 DBFI Tree is ready for flower induction Sanitize tree Prune & Spray HOC
0 – FI Mature buds & leaves Spray flower Inducer + HOC-3n1
7-10 DAFI Bud emergence Spray HOC-4n1
14 DAFI Post emergence Monitor & spray HOC-4n1 + FAA
21 DAFI Pre-emergence/bloom Monitor & Spray HOC if needed
24 DAFI Anthesis/blooming Do not spray
28 DAFI Full anthesis/bloom Do not spray
30-32 DAFI Post anthesis/bloom Monitor
35 DAFI Fruit set Monitor/spray HOC-4n1 + FAA
42 DAFI Post fruit set Monitor/spray HOC-4n1 + FAA
60 – 70 DAFI Fruit enlargement Spray HOC-4n1 & fruit bagging
90 DAFI Start of maturation Monitor/spray HOC-4n1 + FAA
120-130 DAFI Full maturity Harvesting, HWT and Packaging
130-140 DAFI Natural ripening Processing and Marketing
140-360 DAFI Rejuvenation. Flushing, nutrient absorption, photosynthesis, food & energy storage — Dormancy Cultural management: Pruning, Weeding, Cultivation, Fertilizing, Irrigation and Spraying,
361 – 365 Mature flower buds for bearing. Sanitation and Flower Induction

The crucial stage of mango production is the attack of insect pests and diseases at flowering and fruit development stages. Insecticides and fungicides are commonly used, but to obtain good results, the recommended usage and dosage must be followed and control must be directed during the vulnerable stage of insect and disease development (not during the height of destructive infestation and infection). Prevention is better than cure. It is also less expensive and hence, more profitable.

Continues raining during flowering and early fruit development is the most critical condition as Anthracnose fungus disease is prevalent. It will rot the flowers and young fruits and they turn dark and fall off. Every time the rain stops or light drizzle, spray immediately HOC herbal fungicide to wash off the fungus from the flowers and fruit panicles. Do not postpone or delay as the fungus can do damage within a few hours. Shaking the branches to remove water droplets from flowers and young fruits will help for few small trees.


(1) Prior to Induction (2 weeks)
(2) Flower Induction (Day 1)
(3) Bud Break (8-12 days)
(4) Prior to bloom (21 days)
(5) After flower set (corn size 40 days)
(6) Before bagging (60-70 days)
(7) Start of maturation (90-100 days).


Wrapping the individual fruit with newspaper should be done at about 53 to 60 days after induction or just after natural thinning or dropping when the mangoes are about the size of a pullet egg. New observation finds 70–80 DAFI is more practical period to bag, as there will be less fruit drops after bagging and only quality fruits may be bagged.


1. Bagging can reduce or eliminates the incidence of fruit fly and Capsid bug damage, sunburn and fungal infections.
2. Reduced incidence of mechanical damage while the fruit still hung on the tree and during harvesting and handling operations. It protects fruits from wind scars.
3. The paper serves as absorbent of latex flow during harvest.
4. The fruit skin is cleaner and more attractive light green color.
5. Bagging provides more or less an accurate estimate on the number of fruits per tree. This is important in cases where marketing is done on contract basis, or estimated on the total volume and weight of harvest.


Spraying foliar fertilizer high in potash with trace mineral elements during fruit development will make the fruits sweeter. It will make the peel more flexible and will lessen cracking of fruits during the final stage of maturity, even when humidity rises and rains.

Spraying with herbal organic concentrate or HOC-4n1 will do this. It will also protect the fruits from insect pests and fungal diseases.

Let us not forget that friendly insects, birds and microorganisms are very helpful in reducing the population and incidence of insect pests. Providing favorable natural environment in the orchard for friendly biological organisms will greatly reduce cost of production and good quality fruits.


It is very important to keep in mind that the preservation of the superior quality fruit, especially if it is intended for the fresh table use that is critical during the harvest and post harvest period. Harvesting and handling of fruits should be entrusted only to properly trained, preferably experienced workers. It is also advisable for beginners to first observe professional harvesters during harvest operations.

The outmost care in harvesting and handling of mango should be emphasized. Workers and harvesters should first be given a briefing before releasing them to the field. It takes a one-year cycle of care and culture to bring the fruits ready for harvest. It takes less than a second to drop the fruits does and break or bruise does.

Use the right harvesting poles with soft nets to avoid bruising. Use wooden or plastic harvesting crates with clean soft padding. Avoid using banana leaves or other materials that may have fungus diseases that will infect the fruits.

Do not remove fruit bags in the field, as they will serve as cushion and absorbent of latex. They may be removed during grading and classification before washing and hot water treatment.


Maturity of mango fruits ready for harvest.

1. The mango start maturing at 90 days and reach full maturity in 120 to 135 days after flower induction (DAFI). Note: Earlier fruit ripening on tree and dropping may occur in hot arid areas. Delayed maturity occurs in cool humid areas.
2. In hot and dry areas, the fruits tend to ripen earlier, (110 – 115 days). It does not mean that they have reach full physiological maturity (lesser weight and sugar content). In cooler, humid and shady areas, the fruit take more time (135 days) from flower induction to reach full maturity as sunlight may be less. When new flushing comes together with flowering, the fruits likewise take more time to mature (130 DAFI).
3. If the tree flowers naturally, count 85 to 95 days from flower bloom to determine the approximate date of full maturity. Blooming is when flowers open, release odor that attract insect pollinators.
4. One sure test is to get samples randomly picked from the tree and slice the fruits at the apex portion. If the flesh is still white, it is immature, while if it is turning yellow; it is ready for harvest.
5. Floatation checks. Dip the fruit in 1-% salt solution. Seawater may be used. The floaters are immature while those that sink are mature, and ready for harvest. 90% sinkers are ready for harvest.
6. The presence of bloom, or powdery deposit on the surface of the skin is an indication of full physiological maturity.
7. Mature carabao mango fruits have flattened shoulders at the stem end. while immature fruits have slope shoulders with full cheeks.
8. The pedicel of mature fruits turns yellow green in color.
9. Laboratory test may not be practical for field operations. The Titrable Acid of fully mature fruits is less than 45 miliequivalents per 100 grams and the total soluble solids at table ripe is 15% or higher.


1. Hand picking is still the best method, but it is difficult and time consuming for large orchards. Using picking poles and ladder is a common practice, especially with commercial mango production and big plantations with big tall trees. Avoid bruising the fruits with the picking pole.
2. To avoid bruises and damage, in handling and transport, trim off the pedicel before packing when latex flow has dried. It is done easily by pulling off horizontally the pedicel and it will just snap at the neck of the pedicel.
3. The best time of the day to harvest is between 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. when the tree and fruits are dry and latex flow is minimal. Latex cause acid burning and brownish discoloration of the skin, which also make it, open to fungal infection. However for large orchard and big harvest, this cannot be followed, as time will be limited to meet scheduled shipments. Fully mature fruits have less latex flow.
4. To reduce or minimize latex flow, leave two to three centimeters pedicel on the fruit when harvesting. Place the fruit in an inverted position with the pedicel down on absorbent paper materials, which are free from disease contamination.
5. Keep the fruit bags until sorting, washing, HWT, drying and packing.


Sorting and classifying occur at the following stages:
1. During harvest
2. During field packing.
3. Before and during washing
4. After HWT just before final packaging for shipment.
Fruits are classified according to size, weight and the general appearance.


1. Deformity – Abnormality in shape affecting fruit appearance.
2. Wind Scar – Dark streaks slightly elevated are attributed to abrasion due to wind.
3. Latex Burn – Brownish black streaks that may be sunken are attributed to aged latex stains.
4. Ugat – Netted appearance at the peel due to the prominent vascular bundles.
5. Insect Damage – Lesions (fresh or healed) due to insect attack.
6. Scab – Patches of fissured corky tissue on the peel.
7. Sooty Mold – Black powdery deposit (mold) concentrated on the shoulders.
8. Balat Kawayan – Unusually, the deep green color of the peel. The affected fruit fails to change color when ripe.
9. Mottling – Blotchy uneven green color, some of it remains even when the fruit is fully ripe.


1. Grade and classify fruits according to size, weight and peal appearance.
2. Wash fruits with clean warm water with detergent or chlorine.
3. Hot Water Treatment. Dip fruits in 52 to 55 degree centigrade water for 10 minutes. There is new innovation to HWT as spraying or dipping fruits for one minute in 60 degrees heated water.
4. Air-dry the fruits to remove all moisture on the peel and allow them to cool off.
5. Pack in clean paper and boxes for shipment or ripening.

See to it that the fruits remain dry in cool ventilated place. Avoid re-contamination of diseases or exposure to pests while in storage or transit.


Prior to packing for export, meticulous grading and sorting of mangoes are done based on the degree of cleanliness of the skin, size, weight of the fruit, as small, medium, large, and extra large. Mango exports are graded as either “Fancy” or “Standard” depending on the extent of superficial skin markings. All exports must comply with the strict requirement of sweetness (full maturity of 120 to 135 DAFI -15 – 18 brix), firmness and absence of infestation and infections.


(Based on the draft revision of Standards for Mango of the Bureau of Product Standard)



WEIGHT IN GRAMS No. of 2.5 kilo box No. of 5.0 kilo box

No. of 10

Kilo box

No. of 12

Kilo box

X L 357 up 6 – 7 12 – 14 24 – 28 30 – 32
Large 290 – 356 8 16 31 41 – 43
Medium 241 – 289 10 20 40 44 – 50
Small 190 – 240 12 21 48 51 – 63
Super Small 160 – 189 14 – 16 28 – 32 56 – 64 65 – 75
Bioco 85 – 159


1. Physiologically mature. (120-135 DAFI)Sugar content of 15% to 18% brix.
2. Beginning to ripen, with 30 to 50% yellow coloring for Philippine golden Mango or the carabao variety.
3. Significant area of red color on the fruit shoulder for varieties with reddish shine like Florida and some Indian mangoes.
4. Free from disease, decay, sunburn, cracks, bruises, latex stains, insect and mechanical damage. Relatively firm.
5. Conform to the weight and size specification
6. Contained in preferred or specified packing.
7. Underwent pytho-sanitary treatment and quarantine inspection with approval certification.


There are several post harvest treatment being employed:

1. Plain warm water washing with 1-% salt solution or detergent and chlorine. Dry fruits after washing as re-infection occur when fruits are moist.

2. Hot Water Treatment (HWT) where fruits are dipped in 52-55 degrees water for 10 minutes. A new innovation dips in 59 to 60 degree water for 30 seconds to one minute. The temperature range should be strictly maintained and monitored to avoid scalding if it rises, and if it drops, may not control the pest and diseases of the fruits. Air-dry immediately after dipping. Adding chlorine to the water helps control diseases

The author designed and fabricated a simple HWT tank made out of one sheet stainless steel plate heated by LPG. Dimension is 20 x 30 inches and 18 inches high. It has a capacity of 2 crates of 20 kilos per crate per loading. The unit can easily be transported to the site of harvest. It cost P8, 000 to P10, 000 per complete unit with stand, gas-stove burner, LPG tank with hose, regulator and thermometer. A bigger stainless steel tank with 6-crate capacity cost P20, 000.00 fabricated by a machine shop in Gen. Santos City.

3. Extended Hot Water Treatment (EHWT) – Dipping the fruit in 46 – 48 degrees Centigrade for 90 minutes. This treatment is practiced in Mexico for mango exported to the USA.

4. Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT) where fruits are subjected to heated vapor until the inner flesh of the fruit reaches 46 degrees for 10 minutes. This treatment is required for mangoes exported to Japan, and Korea. It is non-toxic and non chemical disinfectant.

5. Chemical Treatment – Using fungicide to control fruit rot. Fungicides are dissolved in water where the fruits are dipped. Benomyl (500-1000 PPM) and other suitable fungicides are used.

6. Fumigation with Ethylene dibromide (EDB) at the rate of 16 grams per cubic meter for 2 hours at 25oC is done for mangoes exported to Australia and New Zealand. This will control and destroy the insect eggs in the fruit. The Australian government has now banned the use of EDB. The Philippine government is negotiating to replace it with VHT to control fruit fly. Irradiation seems to be more favored by Australia. This procedure is no longer acceptable.

7. Irradiation – This is a new introduction to access fruits and food preparation to USA and other countries requiring such quarantine procedure. Many consumers are critical with this procedure

These treatments tend to control fruit born diseases like Anthracnose and Stem End Rot as well as kill insect eggs like Fruit Fly. Be sure to fully dry the fruits after treatment, before packing because wet and moist fruits are easily re-infected by fungal rot diseases.


1. Heat water up to 55*C and maintain the temperature range at 52-55*C during operations. A 59-60 degrees for fast treatment.
2. Place mango in perforated plastic crate or basket that fits into the hot water tank to maximize the number of fruits that can be treated in one dipping. In the absence of plastic crate, any other suitable containers that will not cause bruises on the fruits may be used. This will also avoid direct contact of the fruits with the hot metal bottom of the tank that can cause heat injuries or scalding.
3. Dip the mango into the hot water submerged for 5 to 10 minutes, checking the temperature is between 52-55*C. A faster procedure is 30 to 60 seconds dipping in 59 to 60 degrees water. It is advisable to move the crates now and then to equalize the heat and help remove the dirt from the fruits.
4. Use electric fan to hasten fruit drying. When fully dried, sort them and pack carefully into fruit boxes or crates for storage or shipment to the market.
5. Some buyers do not want chemically treated fruits, so HWT or VHT are done without using fungicide of chemicals.

The above operations should be done within 4 to 8 hours after harvest. It is even preferable for small quantity harvest to do the whole operation right in the field or farm. The best time is treat fruits within 4 hour of picking while latex is still wet.
Harvested mangoes should never be exposed to direct sunlight, wind, rain and other contaminants, either in the farm or during transport to the processing plant and packaging site. If this cannot be avoided, thorough washing and hot water treatment should be done and completely dried and packed avoiding re-contamination.


Packaging consists of three stages.

1. Packing from field harvest to processing or packaging house.
2. Packing of fresh fruits for domestic and export market.
3. Packing of processed fruit products.


A packing house is basically a building with shed and open sides, preferably high roofing and elevated cement flooring with good drainage, aeration and lighting. It should have adequate floor area to accommodate the equipment, working space and storage space. There should also be a provision to shed vehicles loading and unloading fruits during rains and inclement weather. The perimeter area of the packinghouse should be well secured from stray animals and vandals.


Plastic Fruit crates for field howling. 6. Dripping stand
1. Sorting area or tables. 7. Air drier or blower (fans)
2. Washing tanks or basin. 8. Grading and packing tables
3. Plastic Fruit crates for HWT 9. Weighing scales
4. Hot water tank: 10. Pack-Strapping equipment
a. Stainless steel water tank. 11. Fruit cartoons and/or boxes
b. Electric water heater 12. Hand carts
c. Thermostat and thermometer 13. Storage area
d. Gas stove with regulator and gas tank. 14. Loading area
5. Boiler and water pump with piping. 15. Conveyor system


Assuming one hectare produces 50,000 kilos per season and packed in 10 kilo crates or boxes, this will require 5,000 boxes per hectare every year.

1. BAMBOO AND RATTAN BASKETS – “Kaing or Bukag” with a load capacity of 30 to 70 kilos are commonly used by farmers and mango traders. Bruising and mechanical injuries can be minimized with the use of liners, wooden support planks on vehicles during transport.
2. Hard Plastic or Fiberboard Cartoons – These cartons have a capacity of 12 – 20 kilos. They are used for transporting mango from the field to the packinghouse.
3. Containers of Utility – Some traders and mango exporters provide contractors and farmers with returnable plastic crates. Others provide cartons that are use to pack fruits for direct market delivery.
4. Wooden crates – Commercial mango growers are also advised to grow fast growing trees like G’melina, Neem, Bagrass, Falcata and even big bamboo variety for fruit crates and box manufacture to provide packaging materials.


SIZE WEIGHT in grams NUMBER per 2.5 kilos NUMBER per 5 kilos NUMBER per 10 kilos NUMBER per 12 kilos
XL 357 – UP 6 – 7 12 – 14 24 – 28 30 – 32
LARGE 290 – 356 8 16 31 41 – 43
MEDIUM 241 – 289 10 20 40 44 – 50
SMALL 190 – 240 12 21 48 51 – 63
Super small 160 – 189 14 – 16 28 – 32 56 –64 65 – 75
BIOCO 085 – 159 18 – 20 34 -40 65 – 70 76 – 80

Newly harvested, washed and Hot Water Treated mangoes may be stored for 7 days at 15*C. Do not store mangoes below 12.5*C, as this will cause chilling injuries. Ripening mangoes can have another 14 days shelf life. Mangoes for processing may be stored for 21 days in temperature ranging from 1*C to 5*C. Buyers and contractors prefer to harvest green mangoes 100 to 110 days from flower induction as these have longer shelf life than those harvested at 115 to 120 DAFI. However mangoes harvested before 120 days have not reach full maturity, and their sugar content much lower, affecting quality of fruits when ripe. Mangoes harvested when they are fully mature are sweeter with superior eating quality but have a shorter shelf life.

Mango fruits may be ripening in the following manner:
1. The natural way. After the hot water treatment and air-drying, place fruits in clean plastic or wooden crates and store them in a ripening room well sealed so as not to allow entry of moisture and infection. Well mature fruits ripen in 4 to 6 days. The shelf life may extend from 5 to 12 days.
2. Use of carbide. Place a tablespoon of carbide wrap in paper at the bottom of the ripening basket or crate. The container is well padded with paper to be airtight. Place the fruits until filled and cover to secure the fruits is totally sealed. After four (4) days they may be open for aeration and display. Note that the shelf life of this method of ripening is only 3 to 4 days.
3. Use of ethylene. Fruits are sprayed or dip in ethylene solution, air dried and stored in the ripening room. Fruits ripen in 3 to 4 days.
4. Ripening mango with madre de cacao leaves. Pack the fruit in container with fresh semi dried leaves and close airtight. After 4 to 5 days fruits can be taken out and exposed to air and continue ripening.


Mango trading is the last step in the mango industry. This is where the money is. Most growers give little attention to this stage of the mango industry, and the traders who come to them make the most profit. It is suggested that mango growers form their own marketing group even only at their community level, consolidating the fruits and deal with regular traders and exporters on a more stable and long range agreements.

1. From the farm traders and consolidators buy directly from growers. Other buyers even do the harvesting. Harvesting is the responsibility of the growers.
2. Where there are buying stations, farmers or domestic traders deliver the fruits to the station with packaging facility.
3. Local traders and consolidators also deliver fruits to processors to shipping ports by boat or plane to wholesalers or exporters.
Wholesalers distribute to retailers, sell to exporters and fruit processors.

1. Production of mango fruits.
2. Contract growing.
3. Consolidation of fruits
4. Packaging for domestic and export markets.
5. Processing
a. Fresh fruit processing and treatment
b. Fruit processing to other product forms with value added.
6. Whole selling, Distribution
7. Retailing or door to door sales.
a. Ripening
b. Display or direct delivery to customers.


1. Harvesting tools, equipment from farm to Packaging House
2. Buying Station with Packaging House
a. Packaging equipment for fresh fruits
b. Boxes, containers and accessories
3. Processing Plant
a. Processing facilities (Dehydrated, puree, juices, frozen halves, etc).
b. Packing materials and equipment
4. Storage facilities (dry or cold)
5. Transport and delivery vans


1. Plastic Fruit crates for field howling. 11. Dripping stand
2. Sorting area or tables. 12. Air drier or blower (fans)
3. Washing tanks or basin. 13. Grading and packing tables
4. Plastic Fruit crates for HWT 14. Weighing scales
5. Hot water tank: 15. Pack-Strapping equipment
6. Stainless steel water tank. 16. Fruit cartoons and/or boxes
7. Electric water heater 17. Hand carts
8. Thermostat and thermometer 18. Storage area
9. Gas stove with regulator and gas tank. 19. Loading area
10. Boiler and water pump with piping. 20. Conveyor system


Diamond Star Diamond, Blue, Ruby Hong Kong, Japan
Flying Horse (Eden) Flying Horse Hong Kong
Fruitful Golden Harvest Fortune Hong Kong
GHL Marketing, Inc. Golden Leon Hong Kong
Inner town Enterprises Cal Fruits Hong Kong
Jovin Jovin Hong Kong
KS New Regency New Legend, Fortune View Hong Kong
Sally Sally Hong Kong
Succrex Golden Swallow Hong Kong
Tadyason Tadyason Hong Kong
Tricon Tricon, Flying Tiger Hong Kong
Venvie International Prime, Bountiful Mango King, Gold Leaf Hong Kong
Cindy Hong Kong
ABC Fiesta Hong Kong
Marsman-Drysdale La Nuvia, Luna, Sampaguita South Korea, Japan
Pelican Agro Products La Nuvia, Luna, Sampaguita South Korea, Japan
DHM and Dole Tropifresh Dole Japan
Hi-Las Marketing, Inc. Tropical Star South Korea, Japan
Del Monte Del Monte Japan
Other Companies Hong Kong, Japan


The cost of production, productivity and profit vary from farm to farm as the situation and factors affecting the trees and the market change from time to time. Producing mango during off-season is more expensive since more protective spraying during rainy days is required to suppress pest and diseases. However, there are basic fixed costs of production and operational activities that can be fairly estimated on prevailing conditions.

It is very important for mango growers to have and keep record of every farm activity. Every year there should be prepared a farm plan and budget.

An accurate recording of all expenses and revenue are necessary to determine the profit or loss per season or year of farming. This will guide the farmer as to his next year’s operations and activities. To improve or change some of the practices such as the use of indigenous organic and renewable farm inputs as against the conventional farming using imported fertilizers and chemicals.

NURSERY (Seedling Production)

NURSERY ( Production cost of one seedling)  
a. Seeds P 0.50
b. Plastic bag 1.00
c. Garden soil and bagging 1.50
d. Watering 3.00
e. Scion material 2.00
f. Grafting work 5.00
g. Fertilizer and Chemicals 3.00
Total cost for grafted seedling 16.00
Price increase per added flushing and maturing 5.00
Selling price after 3 flushing and maturing 35.00
Price of Large Planting Material (LPM) 100.00
Ready for planting after 22 months nursery and hardening period.  


a. Land Preparation P30.00
b. Staking 5.00
c. Digging and soil refilling 20.00
d. Labor (Planting, fertilizing, watering, mulching) 15.00
e. Planting Material (LPM) 100.00
Tree guard or fencing 30.00
Total Planting Cost 200.00
Labor cost may vary depending on soil condition (Hard clay or Sandy loam)  




MAINTENANCE COST OF CARING JUVENIL TREES (1-6 years old) Cost per yr. of maintenance
a. Labor and maintenance cost for cultivation, irrigation spraying, pruning, weeding, etc. P 60.00
b. Fertilizer and soil conditioners (organic compost) 30.00
c. Chemicals: Insecticide, fungicide and growth regulators 50.00
d. Water supply 20,00
e. Tools and equipment 20.00
f. Miscellaneous 20.00
Average yearly cost of maintenance (1 to 6 yr.) P 200.00
Total cost of maintenance for 6 years to bearing P1,200.00






Production and maintenance cost of bearing trees with average estimated production of 2,000 fruits / 4 = 500 kilograms.  
Gross Sales (500 kgs. x P15.00 = P7.500.00) P7,500.00
Cost of production and maintenance of tree  
a. Labor: Weeding and cultivation 20.00
Pruning and Sanitation 20.00
Fertilization and Soil Conditioning 20.00
Irrigation and Drainage 20.00
Spraying 50.00
Wrapping (2,000 x P0.20) 400.00
Harvesting (2,000 x P0.05) 200.00
Processing and Packaging (500 kgs x P2.00) 1,000.00
b. Fertilizer and Soil Conditioner 200.00
c. Chemicals: Insecticides, Fungicide, Inducer 300.00
d. Packaging Materials (50 x P30.00) 1,500.00
Total Cost of Production P3,730.00
Profit before taxes P3,770.00
Prices and ex farm gate fluctuates. We base on average prevailing prices in year 2003 – 2004  
Ex Farm Gate Prices (All in) P 15.00
Cost of production per kilo 7.46
Net income per kilo 5.54
Return on Investment 74.26 %
50 Trees per Hectare (20 x 20 +1 meters) Cost P3,730 x 50 = P186,500 and Profit P3,770 x 50 = P188,500 P186,500.00P188,500.00


1 to 5 No production Juvenile trees P1,000.00 (P1,000.00)
6 to 7 50 P 500.00 200.00 300.00
8 to 9 100 1,000.00 400.00 600.00
10 to 11 200 2,000.00 800.00 1,200.00
12 to 13 300 3,000.00 1,200.00 1,800.00
14 to 15 400 4,000.00 1,600.00 2,400.00
16 to 17 500 5,000.00 2,000.00 3,000.00
18 to 19 600 6,000.00 2,400.00 3,600.00
20 to 21 700 7.000.00 2,800.00 4,200.00
22 to 23 800 8,000.00 3.200.00 4,800.00
24 to 25 1,000 10,000.00 4,000.00 6,000.00
26 to 30 1,500 15,000.00 6,000.00 9,000.00
31to 40 2,000 20,000.00 8,000.00 12,000.00

Note: The above production estimates are pre conditioned, that the planting distance is 15 to 20 meters apart and the tree is allowed to grow to its natural size with minimal pruning growth restrictions. The bigger the tree crown supported by healthy root system penetrating deep and wide, the more production capacity it has. The bigger the main trunk and branches, the more plant food storage capacity the tree has to sustain its yearly production. The more healthy leaves to cook the nutrients absorbed by the roots through the process of photosynthesis, the more food nutrients are stored for vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting.


Harvesting and handling P2.00
Transport to packing house 0.50
Sorting, washing, treatment & packing 3.00
Cost of packaging materials 3.50
Transport to market or shipping point 1.00
SUB – TOTAL Cost up to packaging P10.00
Sea transport (boat) Gensan to Manila 5.00
Air transport (plane) Gensan to Manila 18.00
 Price Buildup Quality Standard
Cost of production P8.00 P5.00
Profit base margin 8.00 5.00
Farm gate price 16.00   P10.00


Ex-farm gate price P16.00 P10.00
Marketing cost 10.00 10.00
Shipping cost 5.00 5.00
Mark-up (profit margin) 9.00 5.00
Whole sale price P40.00 P30.00


Whole sale price P40.00 P30.00
Marketing cost 5.00 5.00
Mark-up (Profit margin) 15.00 10.00
Retail price P60.00 P45.00

To have a successful and productive mango orchard, the farm should be provided with the necessary facilities as farm structures, equipment and tools, such as the following:

1. Farmhouse for farm supervisor and workers quarters.
2. Bodega, storage room, tool room and equipment input supplies and farm produce.
3. Working shed and packinghouse to be used for multiple activities especially during harvest.
4. Water system, with water pump, storage tanks and water distribution lines.
5. In-farm road network to facilitate field operations and access.
6. Fence and other security structures to keep out animals and intruders.
7. Power source (electricity) and communication facilities.
8. Nursery facilities including a greenhouse.
9. Organic fertilizer composting facilities and Bio – microorganism rearing house.


1. Service and transport vehicle.
2. Farm tractor with implement attachments (plow, harrow, trailer, douse, etc.) For small farms, carabao drawn implements will suffice.
3. Mower and cultivator.
4. Generator, water pumps and reservoir.
5. Power sprayer with accessories (drums, pressure hose, sprayer lance and nuzzle, etc.
6. Cart or wheel borrows.
7. Rain gage, thermometer, soil tester.
8. Weighing scales, (1, 10, 60 kilo capacity)
9. Packinghouse with tanks, air blower, and packaging equipment.


1. Bolo, knives and pruning sheers.
2. Shovel, rake and other garden tools.
3. Hammer, saw and other carpentry tools.
4. Harvesting poles, rope crates etc.
5. Hoe, cultivating tools, rake, etc.
6. Other tools that may come for need.


1. Fertilizers: Chemical, organic, foliar and soil conditioner.

2. Agricultural Chemicals (Insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, growth regulators, rodenticides, etc.) Chemicals can be replaced with herbal and organic fertilizers and pesticides.

3. Packaging materials, (Plastic crates boxes, cartoon, paper, fruit caps, etc.)

4. Protective clothing and disposable gadgets, gloves, rubber boots, etc.


Agriculture is a living science. We find changes and the need for innovation as we progress on our farming venture.

We encourage every mango grower to join Mango Associations in your area, and if possible form your own marketing firm (cooperative, association or corporations) to insure a good market linkage with processors and reputable traders. Attending, seminars, gathering and reading printed mango technology, visiting farms, and conducting your own trials and researches will be very helpful.

Keep a farm record.

We also encourage grower to complete and improve their farm facilities.

Give special attention and time in harvesting. It is during this critical stage where you gain or lose your investments.

If your plantation is bigger than ten (10) hectares, start learning and processing left over (LO) fruits and fruit drops. If you are observant, about 20 % to 30% of the developing fruits drop off, and you can process these into mango pickle and preserves. 10 to 20% of mature harvested fruits are considered leaf over (LO) or rejects by fruit buyers. You can process them to dried, puree, concentrates, powder, candies, preserved and others.

The Department of Science and Technology will be glad to train interested growers how to process their fruits into dried mango, puree, concentrates, chilled halves, candies, preserves, powder, etc. Through your Mango Association DA and DOST including DTI can be invited to help you in your processing, packaging and marketing requirements.

No one is more interested and concern than the owner. So farm owners should take more time in caring, supervising, monitoring and being in the farm. The best fertilizers are the footprints of the owner around his trees and farm.


Written by: Mr. Rex Rivera