Mango Cultivars and Country Origins

Mango Cultivars

There are hundreds of mango cultivars distributed throughout the world, of which Asia and India have over 500 classified varieties have evolved and have been described and 69 species mostly restricted to tropical regions. Perhaps some of these varieties are duplicates with different names, but at least 350 are propagated in commercial nurseries. The highest diversity occurs in Malaysia, particularly in peninsular Malaya, Borneo and Sumatra, representing the heart of the distribution range of the genus. The natural occurrence of all the Mangifera species extends as far north as 27° latitude and as Far East as the Caroline Islands. Wild mangoes occur in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sikkim, Thailand, Kampuchea, Vietnam, Laos, southern China, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon and Caroline Islands. Maximum species diversity exists in western Malaysia and about 28 species are found in this region.

However, in the Western Hemisphere, a few cultivars derived from a breeding program in Florida are the most popular for international trade. Locally, many cultivars are used and often seedling trees are grown as a backyard food source. The Horticulture Research Unit of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research and Education Centre of the University of Florida, together maintain a germplasm 125 of mango cultivars as a resource for mango growers and breeders in many countries.

Cultivar Origin
Aloha Origin San Diego, Jerry Staedeli, 1971. From Hawaiian seed. Tree spreading, light bearer, according to rootstock affinity. Fruit large (14-18 oz.), dull yellow covered with red. Early (Oct-Nov). Susceptible to anthracnose. For coast.
Brooks Origin Miami, 1916. Seedling of Sandersha. Tree somewhat dwarf. Fruit medium to large (10-20 oz.), kidney-shaped, green with yellow shoulder, rather fibrous. Very late. Resistant to anthracnose. For greenhouse and containers.
Cambodiana Origin Miami, 1910. Seedling of Saigon. Philippine type. Fruit small to medium, elongated ovate, yellow-green, juicy, flavor acid. Early. For greenhouse.
Carabao Origin Philippines. Philippine type. Fruit medium (10 oz.), elongated, kidney-shaped, light green blushed yellow. Seed very large, flesh stringy, acid, juicy. Early midseason.
Carrie Origin Delray Beach, Florida, 1940. Seedling of Sophie Fry. Tree dwarf. Fruit varies from small to 12 oz., regular ovate, green-yellow, fiberless, flavor high. Early. For foothills, interior and greenhouse.
Cooper (syn. Cooper No. 1 or 3) Origin Hollywood, Floyd Cooper, 1948. Tree spreading, dense. Fruit large (16-20 oz.), long, green. Flesh high quality. Late. For foothills.
Costa Rica Origin East Los Angeles, Gilbert Guyenne, 1980. >From seed from Costa Rica. Fruit small to 10 oz., elongated, flat, pale green, juicy. Very early. For coast and foothills.
Doubikin Origin Kelmscott, West Africa, Arnold Doubikin, 1965. Two sibling seedlings of Kensington pass under this name. Tree dwarf, rounded, slow growing, fruits in two years from seed. Polyembryonic. Fruit round, large (12-16 oz.), midseason. For coast, foothills, greenhouse.
Earlygold Origin Pine Island, Florida, 1943. Tree upright. Fruit medium to 12 oz., obliquely round, orange with red blush, fiberless, seed often abortive. Very early. Resistant to anthracnose. For coast.
Edgehill Origin Vista, Calif., Paul Thomson, 1920s. Indian type. Tree upright, hardy, vigorous. Monoembryonic. Blooms early. Produces small to medium (8-12 oz.), almost fiberless fruit, green with red blush. Resists mildew, subject to soft nose. Midseason (Nov-Dec). For foothills.
Edward Origin Miami, Edward Simmons, 1948. Hybrid of Haden X Carabao. Intermediate between Indian and Philippine forms. Tree dense, compact. Fruit medium to large, elongated ovate, apex often oblique, yellow green with red blush. Seed very small, easily removed. Flavor excellent. Early. For interior.
Fascell Origin Miami, 1936. Seedling of Brooks. Pat. #451. Tree open, slow. Fruit medium to large, elongated flattened, yellow with pink blush, flesh acid. Early. For coast and inland.
Gouveia Origin Honolulu, Ruth Gouveia, 1946. Tree upright, open, Fruit medium to large,(10-20 oz.), long ovate, green becoming bright red. Sweet, juicy, no fiber. Late, uneven ripening. For coast and inland.
Haden Origin Coconut Grove, Capt. Haden, 1910. seedling of Mulgoba. Indian type. Tree spreading. Fruit large (to 24 oz.), regular ovate, yellow almost covered with red, flavor mild, little fiber. Early. Susceptible to anthracnose and alternate bearing, traits imparted to its progeny. For interior and greenhouse.
Irwin Origin Miami, F.D. Irwin, 1945. Seedling of Lippens. Florida’s leading local market cultivar. Tree very small. Fruit medium, 12-16 oz., elongated, ovate regular in form, orange yellow with deep blush, flesh bland, fiberless. Mid-season. For foothills, interior, greenhouse.
Julie Origin Trinidad. Tree dwarf, slow growing. Fruit small (6-10 oz.), flat oblong, obliquely almost two-nosed, orange, rather fibrous, juicy, sweet. Late. For containers, greenhouse.
Keitt Origin Homestead, 1945. Probably seedling of Mulgoba. Fruit large (20-26 oz.), ovate with slightly oblique apex, green, flesh rich, fiber only around seed. Resists mildew. Late. For interior. Florida fruiting July Aug., sometimes to Sept.
Kensington Pride (syns. Pride of Bowen, Bowen Special) Origin Bowen, Queensland, 1960s. Generally propagated as seedling strain. Polyembryonic. Tree rounded, vigorous. Fruit medium to large, almost round with pink blush. Flavor sweet. Standard Australian mango cv. Fruit tends to drop at small size. Midseason. For foothills.
Kent Origin Coconut Grove, 1944. Seedling of Brooks. Tree upright. Fruit large (20-26 oz.), regular ovate, greenish yellow with red shoulder, flesh rich, fiberless. Late midseason. For interior.
MacPherson Origin Encinitas, L.L. Bucklew, 1944. Tree dense, low branching. Fruit small (6-8 oz.), yellow-green with red blush, flesh fairly good. Midseason. For coast.
Manila Origin Mexico, a seedling race common in Veracruz state. A seedling strain from Hawaii. Philippine type. Tree dwarf, dense. Fruit small to 10 oz., shaped long, flat, yellow, flavor sharp. Subject to anthracnose. Early (Oct-Dec), late picked fruit best. For coast and foothills.
Mulgoba Origin Bombay; distinct from ancient cv. Mulgoa. Fruit medium, 16 oz., greenhouse.
Ott Origin La Habra heights, William Ott, 1948. Seedling of Saigon. Tree dwarf. Fruit medium, to six inches, orange-yellow with pink blush. Season very early.
Piña (syn. Pineapple) Origin Mexico, a seedling strain. Philippine type. Tree upright. Fruit small to 12 oz., shape ovoid, orange yellow. Flavor suggests pineapple. Early midseason (Nov-Dec). For foothills.
Pirie (syn. Paheri) Origin India, ancient. Tree broad, spreading. Fruit small (8-10 oz.), almost round, apex oblique, yellow with red blush. Juicy, fiberless, rich flavor. Alternate bearing; blooms every 18 months. Early midseason. For greenhouse.
Reliable Origin San Diego, Calif., Jerry Staedeli, 1966. Seedling of Sensation. Tree broad, dense, slow. Fruit size varies from 10-20 oz., shape oblong, yellow blushed red. Rarely misses a crop. Subject to anthracnose, soft nose. Long ripening season (Oct-Feb). For coast and foothills.
Sensation Origin Miami, 1941. Tree broad, rounded. Fruit small, round with oblique apex, yellow with red blush, fibers few. Late. For interior.
T1 Origin Vista, Paul Thomson, 1969. Seedling of Edgehill. Tree low, spreading. Vigor dependent upon rootstock. Fruit medium to large, 6-8 inches, shape broad oval, green with red blush, fiberless. Subject to anthracnose, resists mildew, soft nose. Late midseason (Dec-Jan), very late on coast (Jan-Feb). For coast, foothills, interior, containers.
Thomson (syn. Thomson Large Seedling) Origin Vista, Paul Thomson, 1966. Manila seedling, polyembryonic. Tree spreading, vigor dependent upon rootstock. Fruit small to medium, (6-12 oz.), yellow, shape flat, to eight inches. Resists mildew. High fiber under chemical fertilizer regime. Season early, long (September-November), ripens well indoors if picked prematurely. For coast.
Tommy Atkins Originated from a seed planted in the 1920s at Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Commercially grown for export in Florida. Tree full, dense. Fruit medium to large, 16 oz. with thick skin, regular ovate, orange-yellow covered with red and heavy purple bloom. Firm, juicy, medium fiber, fair to good quality. Flavor poor when over fertilized and irrigated. Resists anthracnose. Early, ripens well if picked immature. For interior.
Villaseñor Origin Los Angeles, 1950s, Sr. Villaseñor. Tree dwarf, spreading, responds to strong rootstock. Fruit medium, to 12 oz., shape ovate, color greenish yellow, pink blush, flavor mild. Late midseason (Dec Jan). For coast, foothills.
Winters (syn, M20222, Southland) Origin Miami, USDA, 1959. Seedling of Ono, Philippine type, polyembryonic. Tree broad, production variable. Fruit medium, to 14 oz., smaller in desert, shape half-round, yellow blushed red. Subject to anthracnose, resists soft nose. Parthenocarpic fruit will reach full size. Season midseason (Nov-Dec), ripens well if picked immature. For coast, foothills, interior.
Zill Origin Lake Worth, 1930. Seedling of Haden. Tree very spreading, open. Fruit small, 8-12 oz., almost round, apex oblique, yellow with blush, little fiber. Ripens early. For greenhouse.

Apart from numerous seedling varieties, more than a thousand vegetatively propagated mango cultivars have been reported. Most of these have originated as chance seedlings and propagated asexually.

Important mango cultivars in major producing countries are listed in the Table below.

Country Cultivars
Australia Kensington Pride, Banana, Earlygold, Glenn, Haden, Irwin, Keitt, Kent, Zill
Bangladesh Aswina, Fazli, Gopal Bhog, Himsagar,Khirsapati, Langra, Kishan Bhog, Kohinoor, Kua Pahari, Mohan Bhog
Brazil Bourbon, Carlota, Coracao, Espada, Itamaraca, Maco, Magoada, Rosa, Tommy Atkins
China Baiyu, Guixiang, Huangpi, Huangyu, Macheco, Sannian, Yuexi No. 1
Costa Rica Haden, Irwin, Keitt, Mora, Tommy Atkins
Ecuador Haden, Keitt, Kent, Tommy Atkins
Egypt Alphonso, Bullocks Heart, Hindi Be Sennara, Langra, Mabrouka, Pairie, Taimour, Zebda
Guatemala Haden, Kent, Tommy Atkins
Haiti Francine, Madame Francis
India Alphonso, Banganapalli, Bombay, Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari, Fazli, Fernandian, Himsagar, Kesar, Kishen Bhog, Langra, Mallika, Mankurad, Mulgoa, Neelum, Pairi, Samar Behisht Chausa, Suvarnarekha, Totapuri, Vanraj, Zardalu, Amrapali, Bangalora, Gulabkhas
Indonesia Arumanis, Dodol, Gedong, Golek, Madu, Manalagi, Cengkir, Wangi
Israel Haden,Tommy Atkins,Keitt, Maya, Nimrod, Kent, Palmer
Kenya Boubo,Ngowe,Batawi
Malaysia Arumanis, Kuala Selangor 2, Golek, Apple Rumani, Malgoa, Apple Mango, Maha-65, Tok Boon
Mali Amelie,Kent
Mexico Haden, Irwin, Kent, Manila, Palmer, Sensation, Tommy Atkins, Van Dyke
Myanmar Aug Din, Ma Chit Su, Sein Ta Lone, Shwe Hin Tha
Pakistan Anwar Ratol, Baganapalli, Chausa, Dashehari, Gulab Khas, Langra, Siroli, Sindhri, Suvarnarekha, Zafran
Peru Haden, Keitt, Kent, Tommy Atkins
Philippines Carabao, Manila Super, Pico, Binoboy, Carabao, Dudul, Pahutan, Senorita
Singapore Apple Mango, Arumanis, Golek, Kaem Yao, Mangga Dadol
South Africa Fascell, Haden, Keitt, Kent, Sensation, Tommy Atkins, Zill
Sri Lanka Karutha Colomban, Willard, Vellai Colomban, Petti amba, Malwana amba, Parrot Mango and Peterpasand, Dapara, Hingurakgoda
Thailand Nam Doc Mai, Ngar Charn, Okrong, Rad, Choke Anand, Kao Keaw, Keow Savoey, Pimsenmum
USA Keitt, Kent, Tommy Atkins
Venezuela Haden Keitt Kent Tommy Atkins
Vietnam Combodiana